Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
associative learning
learnign taht certain events (two stimuli in classical conditioning) occur together.
classical conditioning
a type of learnign in which an organism comes to associate stimuli, a neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) begins to produce a responses that anticipates and prepares for teh unconditioned stimulus. also called pavolovian conditioning.
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience.
the view that psychology 1. should be an objective science that 2. studies behavior without reference to mental processes. most reserach psychologists today agree with 1. but not with 2.
unconditioned response (UCR)
in classical conditioning, teh unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), such as salivation when food is in teh mouth.
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically -tirggers a response.
conditioned response (CR)
in clascical conditioning, teh learned response to a previously netural conditioned stimulus (CS)
conditioned stimulus (CS)
in calssical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS), comes to trigger an conditioned response
the inital stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus wiht an uconditioned stimulus so that teh netural stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response.
the diminishing of a conditoned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) does not follow a conditioend stimulus (CS).
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished conditoined response
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to teh conditoned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditoined stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditoned stimuls.
associative learning
learning that certain events (a response and its consequences in operant conditioning) occur together.
operant conditoining
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminshed if followed by a punisher.
repondent behavior
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus; skinner's term ofr behavior learned through classical conditioning.
operant behavior
behavior that operates on teh environment, producing consequences.
law of effect
thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequcnes become more likely, and that behaviors follwed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.
operant chamber (skinner's box)
a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached edevieces to record teh animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking. used in operant conditioning research.
an operant conditioining procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer apporximations of a desired goal
in operant conditioning, an event that strengthens teh behavior it follows.
primary reinforcer
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.
conditioned reinforcer
a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforecer; also known as secondary reinforcer.
continuous reinforcement
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
partial (intermittent) reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much tgreater resistance ot extinction that does continuous reinforcemtn.
fixed ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
variable-ratio schedule
in operant condionting, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.
fixed interval scedule
in operant conditioining, a schedule of reinforcemtn that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
variable-interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcemtn that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows.
cognitive map
a mental representation of teh layout of one's environemtn. for example after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have laerned a cognitive map of it.
latent learnign
learnign that occurs but i snot apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
overjustification effect
the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do. the person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task.
intrinsiv motivation
a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective.
extrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment.
prosocial behavior
positive, constructive, helpful behavior. the opposite of antisocial behavior.
observational learning
learning by observing others.
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.
mirror neurons
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. teh brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy.