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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it.
critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hdiden values, evaluates evidence, adn assesses conclusions.
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations.
a testable prediction, often implied yb a theory.
operational difinition
a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. for example intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures.
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
case study
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
a tecnique for ascertaining the self-reported attitues or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the exten to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
all teh cases in a group, from which samples may be drwan for a study. (note: except for national studies, this does not refer to a country's whole population
random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
illusory correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists.
a reserach method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe teh effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). by random assignment of participants, the experiemtn controls other relevant factors
double-blind procedure
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants adn teh reserach staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research paticipants have received the treatment or a placebo. commonly used in drug evaluation studies.
placebo effect
experimental results casued by expectations alone; any effect on behavior casued by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.
experimental condition
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to teh treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
control condition
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with teh experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment