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119 Cards in this Set

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Type of junction that forms a tight leakproof seal Ex stomach, intestines, bladder

CHOOSE FROM:
Tight, Adherens, Desmosomes, Hemidesmosome, Gap Junction
Tight Junction between cells
type of junction that uses a protein called cadherin, works like a belt to keep the pants from falling down as they expand and contract
CHOOSE FROM:
Tight, Adherens, Desmosomes, Hemidesmosome, Gap Junction
Adherens junction between cells
type of junction "spot welds" between cells. Hold tissue together against mechanical disruption, these junctions use cadherin between cells and between to form a continuous strong structure
CHOOSE FROM:
Tight, Adherens, Desmosomes, Hemidesmosome, Gap Junction
Desomsomes Junction between cells
type of junction found between cell and basement membrane. protein integrin is used to link hemidesmosome to basement membrane. on cell side-intermediate filaments anchor to cytoskeleton to integrins which connect to basement
CHOOSE FROM:
Tight, Adherens, Desmosomes, Hemidesmosome, Gap Junction
Hemidesmosome Junction between cells
type of junction, a protein connexin forms pore-like structures called connexons. a connexon allows small ions to pass from cell to cell. monomers and small polymers can pass between cells. connexons can seal off a sick cell
CHOOSE FROM:
Tight, Adherens, Desmosomes, Hemidesmosome, Gap Junction
Gap junction between cells
Type of tissue that forms a covering that protects the body. this covers lumen in intestinal tract

choices; epithelial, connective, muscular, or nervous
epithelial tissue
type of tissue holds structure of body, used for strength and hold organs together. ex. bone and tendons are connective tissue

choices; epithelial, connective, muscular, or nervous
Connective tissue
type of tissue that moves body parts around

choices; epithelial, connective, muscular, or nervous
muscular tissue
type of tissue that is in the CNS(brain and spinal cord) and PNS (ganglia and nerves)
nervous tissue
name the two layers of the epithelium and which one is on top and which is on basement
Free Apical surface-top
basal surface- basement
What two layers is makes up the basement membrane
basal lamina-nearest epithelial tissue
reticular lamina- deeper than basal
what type of tissue is below the basement membrane
connective tissue
name the three types of arrangements that can be found in the epithelial tissue
simple- cells in single layers but all touch basement
pseudostratified-appear to have layers but all touch basement
stratified- have layers only lowest layer toush the basement
name the three types of shapes of epithelial tissue
squamos- flat, wide "paving stone" cells
cuboidal- cells are as wide as tall
columnar- cells taller than wide
how many combinations can we make of epithelial tissues
8 combinations
simple squamous epithelia
simple cuboidal epithelia
simple columnar epithelia
pseudostratified columnar epithelia
stratified squamous epithelia
stratified cuboidal epithelia
stratified columnar epithelia
transitional epithelia
describe simple squamous epithelia
simple layer of flat cells
ex
lining of heart, air sacs, eardrum, lining of blood and lymph vessels, kidney filtration, one layer of serous membranes
describe simple cuboidal epithelia
single layer of cube-shaped cells
ex. surface of ovaries, eye lens and pigement epithelium, many glands, kidney tubules
often found where secretion and absorption take place
describe simple columnar epithelia
single layer of column-like cells
nonciliated- GI tract, glandular ducts, gallbladder
ciliated- respiratory tract, efferent ducts testes, canal of spinal cord and ventricles of brain, uterine tubes/uterus, paranasal sinuses
describe pseudostratified columnar epithelium
appeals to have layers/ all cells attached to basement membrane
ciliated- upper respiratory airways
nonciliated- glands, epididymis and urethra
describe stratified squamous epithelia
flat cells. most commone epithelia. makes up skin and mucous membranes
describe stratified cuboidal epithelia
two or more layers. sweat gland ducts, esophageal gland duct, and part of male urethra
describe stratified columnar epithelia
two or more layers, made up of tall cells, part of urethra, part of anal mucous membrane, excretory ducts of some glands, part of conjunctiva in eye
describe transitional epithelia
shape of cells changes depending on state of stretch. several layers
ex. bladder nearby urethra and ureters. full bladder: squamous cells
empty bladder: cuboidal cells
What is another name for unbranched gland
simple glands
what is another name for branched gland
compound glands
what is another name for tube-like gland
tubular gland
what is another name for grape-like gland
acinar "alveolar" gland
what is another name for grape-like and tube-like gland
tubulacinar gland
Name the three types of exocrine glands
Merocrine, Apocrine, and Holocrine glands
Describe steps in formation of secretory product Merocrine Secretion
1. instructions transcribed to mRNA in nucleus, 2. synthesized in rough ER, 3. packaged in Golgi Complex, 4. formed into secretory vesicle, 5. released. protein is formed in RER. it's packages into vesicles in Golgi complex that can fuse with cell membrane on demand to release cell's secretory product
Describe Apocrine secretion's steps in formation of secretory product
1. instructions transcribed to mRNA in nucleus, 2. synthesized in rough ER, 3.packaged in golgi,4.formed into vesicle, 5.end of cell breaks off and dissolves. vesicles gather together in a little cell life raft which is broken open and releases vesicle product. male prostate and female mammory glands secrete their products this way
describe holocrine secretion steps in formation of secretory product
1.instruction transcribed to mRNA in nucleus, 2.synthesized in rough ER, 3.packaged in Golgi complex, 4a. cell dies releasing product, 4b. lost cell replaced by division of stem cells
describe connective tissue
cells loosely arranged with a lot of space between
abundant extracellular matrix-substance secreted by cells
name the two embryonic connective tissue
mesenchyme and mucous connective tissue
name the five types of mature connective tissue
loose connective tissue, dense connective tissue, cartilage, bone, liquid
What does connective tissue in embryo do
rapidly dividing cells are gathering together into organs and tissues so they must be able to move freely
what does connective tissue in mature human
connective tissue holds things in place does not want to allow movement of cells
define fibroblasts
most numerous of connective tissue cell and secrete fibrous components
define adipocytes
fat cells, store triglycerides
define mast cells
important in inflammation, produce histamine
define White Blood Cell
include immune cell
define macrophages
fixed or wandering destroy invaders
define plasma cells
fromed from WBC secrete special proteins (antibodies) help attack invaders
Fibroblasts
lay down protein fibers. collagen is made by fibroblasts. elastin and reticular fibers are also products
what type of embryonic connective tissue almost fluid in consistency cells are widely spaced
mesenchyme
what type of embryonic connective tissue in umbilical cord, jelly-like connective tissue "wharton's jelly"
mucous connective tissue
Areolar of loose connective tissue
most common found in layers supporting skin mucous membranes support and surround organs
adipose of loose connective tissue
fat found under skin around heart and kidney in yellow bone marrow and forms cushins in joints and eye sockets
reticular loose connective tissue
loose meshwork of reticular cells, forms stroma (supporting framework) of liver, spleen, lymph nodes and basement membrane
type of dense connective tissue "white shiny sheet" made up of collagen fibers in regular bundles with a few fibroblasts found in tendons, ligaments, and sheetlike tendons-aponeuroses dense structure and lack of blood supply
slow to heal
dense regular connective tissue
type of dense connective tissue has fibroblasts and collagen fibers collagen runs in many different directions found in fascia-which form sheets between muscles found in deeper part of skin, in "peri-" tissues that surround bone, cartilage, and heart
dense irregular dense connective tissue
type of dense connective tissue made up of many oriented elastic fibers and few scattered fibroblasts
found in lungs, trachea, bronchial tubes, and vocal cords ligaments between vertebrae and ligaments of penis
elastic dense connective tissue
what type of cartilage most abundant shiny bluish-white substance consists of fine collagen fibers and many chondrocytes, chonrocytes are enclosed in lacunae
hyaline cartilage
type of cartilage that collagen fibers are coarser and gathered together into thick bundles, found in pubic symphysis, discs, padding of kness (menisci) and where tendon inserts into cartilage
fibrocartilage
type of cartilage makes up the epiglottis, external ear, and tubes that connect ear to mouth (eustachian tube)
elastic cartilage
what type of bone that is complex and regular structure consists of osteons
compact bone
what type of bone is irregular structure; spikes of mineralized tissue have ample space between for redbone marrow
spongy bone
what is plasma made of
salt wat and proteins
describe lymph and what it does
filtrate of blood with most of the cells and some protein removed. WBC move around in lymph to guard against invaders
what type of membrane lines interface between the body cavities and the outside world. the connective tissue layer of mucous membrane is called lamine propria. example digestive tract, respiratory tract, and reproductive tract

mucous, serous, cutaneous membranes
mucous membrane
what type of membrane forms lining between body wall and internal organs example parietal layer, serous fluid, and visceral layer
mucous, serous, cutanerous membranes
serous membrane
type of membrane that skin covers outside of body
mucous, serous, cutaneous membranes
cutaneous membrane
what type of membrane lines space between two bones forming a joint. lubricates joints
synovial membrane
what type of muscle is voluntary and striated. we "choose" to use this muscle. multiple nuclei visible. fused to form a long thin tube of myofiber called syncytium
Skeletal muscle
what type of muscle is involuntary and striated. Fibers are joined in branches, not parallel. one or two nuclei per fiber
cardiac muscle
what type of muscle is involuntary and nonstriated. single cells with one nucleus and cytoskeleton is arranged in random fashion so it does not appear striated. example; gut tube is lined with smooth muscle for easy digestion
smooth muscle
what layer of skin is comprised mostly of dead cells, which have expelled their nucleus and all organelles and have become bags of protein called keratin

choose from;epidermis, dermis, and SubQ
epidermis
what layer of skin has living layer of tissue under epidermis contains blood vessels, nerves, glands, adn living skin cells. hair roots are in the dermis and some muscle(arrector pili)
choose: epidermis, dermis, and subQ
dermis layer
what layer of skin has areolar and adipose connective tissue

choose: epidermis, dermis, and subQ
subQ layer
what are the superficial layers from deepest to superficial
stratum basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, corneum
before signaling get legal counsel
what layer of the 5 layers contains a single row of cuboidla and columnar keratinocytes that contain scattered tonofilaments
stratum basale
what layer of the 5 layers contains 8-10 rows of many-sided keratinocytes with bundles of tonofilaminets armlike processes of melanocytes and langerhan cells
stratum spinosum
what layer fo the 5 layers contains 3-5 rows of flattened keratinocytes which organelles begin to degenerate. protein keratinocytes converts tonofilaments into keratin and lamellar glanules which release lipid-rich water-repellent secretions
stratum granulosum
what layer of the 5 layers presents only in fingertips, palms, and soles. 3-5 rows of clear flat dead keratinocytes
stratum lucidum
what layer of the 5 layers has 25-30 rows of dead flat keratinocytes that contain mostly keratin
stratum corneum
keratinocytes are constantly made in the stratum____ and as cells are pushed more superficially they lose their ____ and _____
basale. nucleus and organelles
thin skin lacks which stratum layer
stratum lucidum
thick skin is also called
Glabrous
what are the two regions of the dermis
papillary and reticular regions
which region of the dermis is 1/5 of the thickness of the dermis and has ridges that penetrate into epidermis and contain blood vessels and sensory structures known as Meissner corpuscles and free nerve ending. it has a tight attachment to the epidermis
Papillary region of dermis
which region of the dermis is 4/5 of dermis. nerves and blood vessels run through the dermis here and also hair roots and glands.
reticular region
stretching of connective tissue can cause tears which is called ..
striae or stretch marks
Pheomelanin skin pigment
yellow to red
eumelanin skin pigment
brown to black
What amino acid is melanin made from
tyrosine in an organlled called melanosome
Name the three skin pigments
melanin, hemoglobin, and carotene
what pigment has red pigment in blood that gives skin a pinkish cast. little melanin is stored in melanocytes
hemoglobin
what pigment forms deposits on skin, precursor to vitamin A and is found in intensely colored fruits and veggies
cartone
what are the four cells types found in epidermis
dead keratinocytes, melanocytes, langerhan, and merkel disc
Keratins and lipids help make a ..
waterproof seal
what is the function of epidermis
offers protection, but damage does not hurt living tissue
what is the function of dermis
living tissue but capable of healing, protects against temp changes and dehydration
what is the function of subq layer
insulation of blood vessels
superficial or deep wound?
wounds that do not penetrate the epithelium. dividing cells of stratum basale migrate into wound the normal process of division produces nucleated keratinocytes and these get pushed upward by the newly-divided keratinocytes as they mature to corneocytes
superficial wounds
superficial or deep wound?
penetrate blood vessel. blood fills the wound then clots into a semi-solid mass. monocytes in clot mature into macrophages. neutrophils and macrophages work to destroy invaders. cells of stratum basale migrate to replace epidermis. fibroblasts lay new fiber
deep wounds
if sweat glands release fluid to the surface to cool skin by evaporation. blood vessels dilate and shed more heat to the environment. this makes the skin appear pink or red, what is that body trying to do
body wants to shed heat
head is conserved, sweat glands stop production and blood vessels constrict. blood stays internal to the dermis behind insulated layer of fat. skin may appear pale of blue. what is the body trying to do
body is too cold
what are the two primary thermoregulatory mechanisms
circulation and sweating
what common disease of aging skin has dilated blood vessels and pimples around nose and cheeks. no known cause
rosacea
what do eccrine sweat glands do
are needed as effectors in homeostatic loops for thermoregulation. these glands lie in dermis and open to skin surface through a duct. secrete a sweat that in thin dilute solution of salt water, urea, uric aced, ammonia, amino acids, glucose
what do apocrine sweat glands do
similar to eccrine but more viscous. they don't open to the skin but associated with hair follicles. they are stimulated to release their product during emotional stress and sexual excitement. these sweat glands are developed with puberty. line in subQ layer.
what is the visible portion of hair made up of
medulla, cortex, and the outside covering or cuticle
brown or black color pigment hair is called
eumelanin
blonde or red color pigment hair is called
pheomelanin
white or gray occurs when
when pigment production is reduced or halted and air bubbles replace pigment
what do the Meissner corpuscles and merkel disc sensory receptors do
help us perceive light touch
what do the free nerve endings do
mediate painful sensations
the pacinian (lamellated) corpuscle is
layered like an onion and responds preferentially to vibration
what happens in the first state of the growth cycle of hair
growth (anagen) stage: hair matrix cells at base of follicle divide this pushes the hair a little further out of the root. lasts 2-6 years
what happens in the second stage of the growth cycle of hair
Regression (Catagen) stage: hair matrix stops dividing. lasts 2-3 weeks
what happens in the third stage of the growth cycle of hair
Resting (telogen) stage: lasts 3 months. hair falls out at the end and is replaced by new hair
what degree burn is only epidermis is involved, skin reddens, no permanent damage and skin returns to normal in about 1 week
first degree burn
what degree burn is heat energy penetrates deeply and both epidermis and dermis is damaged. blood vessels leak fluid and form blisters as skin fill with filtrate blood. hair and glands are not typically damaged
second degree burn
what degree burn is "full thickness" destroys all layers of skin. cells die and skin function is lost in area. Dead skin may be black, cherry red, or ash white
third degree burn
what % of surface does an arm have in rule of nines
9%
what % does the perineum have in rule of nines
1%
what % does anterior trunk have in rule of nines
18%
What percent does a thigh have in rule of nines
9%
what year and who first demonstrated disinfection (noticed from working on cadavers and then delivering babies and the babies getting puerperal fever)
1847 Ignatz Semmel