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10 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Define anemia
reduction in total number of RBCs, amount of Hb in circulation (or Hct), or circulating mass
Result of anemia?
impaired delivery, giving rise to physiologic consequences secondary to tissue hypoxia as well as compensatory mechs to correct anoxia
General clinical features of anemia?
1. weakness, malaise, easy fatiguability
2. dyspnea on mild exertion
3. pallor
4. angina, heart failure (espec in presence of vascular disease)
5. CNS: headache, faintness, dimness of vision
General pathological features of anemia?
1. thin and atrophic skin
2. brittle nails/koilonychia (espec in Fe deficiency)
3. Ischemic/fatty change in myocardium, kidney, liver, CNS (ganglion cells of cortex and basal ganglia)
4. BM hyperplasia (except in aplastic anemia)
5. extramedullary hematopoiesis (liver, spleen, lymph nodes) in severe cases
What is MCV?
Mean corpuscular volume

= Hct/RBC count

An AVERAGE number and used to classify cells as:

normocytic: 80-100 fl
microcytic: <80 fl
macrocytic: >100 fl
What is MCHC?
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration

= Hb/Hct

Average concentration of Hb (g/dL) in RBCs and used to classify cells as:

normochromic: 32-36 g/dl
hypochromic: <32 g/dl
hyperchromic: >36 g/dl
What is MCH?
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin

= Hb/RBC count

Is a measurement of avg wt of Hb in indiv RBCs.

Normal = 27-31pg

Smaller cells contain less Hb and large contain more
How can anemias be described?
micro, macro, normocytic

1. decreased production
2. increased destruction

Underlying mech:
1. blood loss
2. increased rate of destruction (hemolysis)
3. impaired production
What is anisocytosis?
variation in RBC cell size
What is poikilocytosis?
variation in RBC shape