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24 Cards in this Set

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Define the following term:
Life science
A term that encompasses all scientific pursuits related to living organisms
Define the following term:
Archaeology
The study of past human life as revealed by preserved relics
Define the following term:
Geology
The study of earth’s history as revealed in the rocks that make up the earth
Define the following term: Known age
The age of an artifact as determined by a date printed on it or a reference to the artifact in a work of history artifact in a work of history
Define the following term:
Dendrochronology
The process of counting tree rings to determine the age of a tree
Define the following term:
The Principle of Superposition
When artifacts are found in rock or earth that is layered, the
deeper layers hold the older artifacts.
If you study, will you have done the correct thing?
Absolutely and you will be a virtuous person who will probably get a better grade than if you had not studied!
Although the genealogies of Jesus in Luke 3 and Matthew 1 seem to contradict each other, they really do not. Why?
One traces Mary’s lineage while the other traces Joseph’s.
What does Aristotle’s dictum state?
Aristotle's dictum states that when you apply the internal test to a document, you must give the document some leeway. If two passages seem to contradict each other, they are not to be counted as a contradiction if a legitimate explanation can be offered to explain away the contradiction.
What is a master tree ring pattern?
Archaeologists studying a certain region can cut down an old tree that is still alive. They can then look for distinct patterns of tree rings that correspond to several years of a given weather pattern for that region. Counting from the outside of the tree to the start of this special pattern will then tell archaeologists how many years ago that weather pattern occurred. Archaeologists find several such patterns and catalog them as master tree ring patterns for that region of the world.
What is a known age?
The age of an artifact as determined by a date printed on it or a reference to the artifact in a work of history
What is an absolute age?
The calculated age of an artifact when a specific dating method is used to
determine when the artifact was made--
What are the ONLY ages that are certain in archaeology?
KNOWN AGES
Which test simply tests to see whether or not the document in question is internally consistent. A valid work of history cannot contradict itself.
internal test
Which test asks another simple question: Does the document contradict other known historical historical or archaeological facts?
external test
When we are working with copies of the original work, how do we know that the words on the copy are truly the words from the original? This is probably the biggest problem with historical works.
We use the bibliographic test
The Bible passes what test BETTER than any other work of ancient history?
bibliographic test
The Bible passes which test just AS WELL AS any ancient document of history
the internal test
The Bible passes which test BETTER than any document of its time
the external test
Define Aristotle's dictum
The benefit of the doubt is to be given to the document itself, not assigned by the critic to himself.
Why do we need to use Aristotle's dictum?
Languages change over time, sometimes quite dramatically. The more time that has elapsed since a document was written, the harder it will be to understand the language. This, of course, makes it difficult to spot inconsistencies within a document. What seems like a contradiction might not be a contradiction once the age of the language and its usage are taken into account.
What does Aristotle's dictum mean?
Aristotle's dictum states that when you apply the internal test to a document, you must give the document some leeway. If two passages seem to contradict each other, they are not to be counted as a contradiction if a legitimate explanation can be offered to explain away the contradiction.
What can give the archaeologist an idea of how old an artifact is relative to another artifact.
The Principle of Superposition
The Principle of superpositon makes an assumption. What is that assumption?
Archaeologists assume that when these layers were formed, they were formed one at a time. As you will see later on in this course, that's not a good assumption in many cases.