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55 Cards in this Set

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triiodothyronine (T3)
One of two main hormones produced by the thyroid gland. It is the most powerful thyroid hormone, and affects almost every process in the body, including body temperature, growth, and heart rate;an iodine-containing hormone that is an amino acid derived from thyroxine.
Myxedema
Under-active thyroid gland in adults; severe hypothyroidism characterized by firm inelastic edema, dry skin and hair, and loss of mental and physical vigor
parathyroid hormone
(parathormone (PTH))-- a hormone of the parathyroid gland that regulates the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus in the body; increases blood calcium.
thyroxine (T4)
A chemical substance made by the thyroid gland The thyroid gland uses iodine to make thyroid hormones. Thyroxine (T4), one of the most important thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones are essential for the function of every cell in the body. They help regulate growth and the rate of chemical reactions (metabolism) in the body.
endocrine
Secreting internally;The internal or hormonal secretion of a ductless gland.
Denoting a gland that furnishes an internal secretion.
The thyroid gland produces _________ which is necessary for the production of T3 and T4.
iodine
Cretinism
a usually congenital abnormal condition marked by physical stunting and mental retardation and caused by severe hypothyroidism (lack of thyroid hormones)
parathormone (PTH)
a hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that regulates the metabolism of calcium and phosphate in the body; increases blood calcium
Name the 2 parts of the adrenal glands.
1)cortex
2)medulla
What does the adrenal cortex secrete?
secretes steroid (cortisone-related) hormones and mineralocortoids that regulate the levels of minerals such as sodium and potassium in the blood.
glucocorticoids
Any of a group of steroid hormones, such as cortisone, that are produced by the adrenal cortex, are involved in carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism, and have anti-inflammatory properties
Adrenal virilism
Presence of male characteristics in a female (opposite sex)
Addison's disease
Insufficient production of steroids from the adrenal glands; a glandular disorder caused by failure of function of the cortex of the adrenal gland and marked by anemia and prostration with brownish skin
Hypoglycemia
Abnormally low levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood
Diabetes mellitus
Lack of insulin -- disorder causing hyperglycemia - high levels of glucose (sugar) in blood
thyroid gland
A butterfly-shaped endocrine gland in the neck that is found on both sides of the trachea windpipe). It secretes the hormone thyroxine which controls the rate of metabolism.
What does the thyroid gland secrete (2)?
1)T3 (triiodothyronine)
2)T4 (thyroxine)
hyperthyroidism
excessive functional activity of the thyroid gland; also : the resulting condition marked especially by increased metabolic rate, enlargement of the thyroid gland, rapid heart rate, and high blood pressure
Goiter
Enlargement of the thyroid gland; visible as a swelling of the front of the neck
Parathyroid glands
Four small endocrine glands lying close or embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid gland. They secrete the hormone parathormone.
Hyperparathyroidism
Excessive production of parathormone
Tetany
Intermittent muscle spasm due to parathyroid deficiency
Name 3 groups of hormones that the cortex and the medulla of the adrenal glands produce.
1)mineralocorticoids
2)glucocorticoids
3)sex hormones
What does the adrenal medulla make and secrete?
makes adrenaline (adrenaline) and noradrenaline (noradrenaline). Adrenaline is secreted in response to low blood levels of glucose as well as exercise and stress; it causes the breakdown of the storage product glycogen to the sugar glucose in the liver, facilitates the release of fatty acids from adipose (fat) tissue, causes dilation (widening) of the small arteries within muscle and increases the output of the heart. Noradrenaline is a neurohormone, a neurotransmitter, for of most of the so-called sympathetic nervous system.
sex hormones
a hormone (as from the adrenal cortex) that affects the growth or function of the reproductive organs or the development of secondary sex characteristics
Hirsutism
Excessive growth of hair on body and face, especially in women
pancreas
An endocrine and exocrine gland; A tongue-shaped glandular organ lying below and behind the stomach. Secretes pancreatic juice to aid in digestion and also produces the hormones insulin and glucogon.
Hyperinsulinism
Excessive secretion of insulin in blood
Graves disease
Overactivity of the thyroid gland, with enlarged gland and ocular problems (protrusion of eyeballs)
Hypothyroidism
deficient activity of the thyroid gland; also : a resultant bodily condition characterized by lowered metabolic rate and general loss of vigor
What does the parathyroid gland produce (2)?
1)parathyroid hormone
2)parathormone (PTH)
Hypoparathyroidism
Insufficient or absent secretion of parathyroid glands.
Adrenal glands
One of a pair of small glands, each of which sits on top of one of the kidneys. The adrenal is made up of an outer wall (the cortex) and an inner portion (the medulla). The adrenal glands produce hormones that help control the heart rate, blood pressure, the way the body uses food, and other vital functions
Name the 2 parts of the adrenal glands.
1)cortex (outer wall)
2)medulla (inner portion)
mineralocorticoids
Any of a group of steroid hormones, such as aldosterone, that are secreted by the adrenal cortex and regulate the balance of water and electrolytes in the body.
Cushing's disease
Excess glucocorticoid levels, a side effect with use of steroids to treat inflammatory diseases, producing moon-like fullness of face.
Hypoglycemia
Abnormally low levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood
pituitary gland
The main endocrine gland. It is a small structure the size of a pea located in the brain. It is called the master gland because it produces hormones that control other glands and many body functions including growth. The pituitary consists of the anterior and posterior pituitary.
pituitary gland
The main endocrine gland. It is a small structure the size of a pea located in the brain. It is called the master gland because it produces hormones that control other glands and many body functions including growth. The pituitary consists of the anterior and posterior pituitary.
Name the 2 divisions of the pituitary gland.
1)anterior lobe
2)posterior lobe
Name the 7 hormones that are produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
1)growth hormone (GH)
2)thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
3)adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
4)follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
5)luteinizing hormone (LH)
6)Prolactin hormone (PRL)
7)melanocyte stimulation hormone (MSH)
Gigantism
Overgrowth of the pituitary gland before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of the body
Acromegaly
Enlargement of extremities after puberty, with overgrowth of bones of hands, feet and face
Dwarfism
Congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone
panhypopituitarism
midget
Name the 3 hormones that are produced by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
1)antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
2)vasopressin
3)oxytocin
Diabetes insipidus
Insufficient secretion of vasopressin
vasopressin
hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland that increases blood pressure and decreases urine flow -- called also antidiuretic hormone
oxytocin
hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (trade name Pitocin); stimulates contractions of the uterus and ejection of milk
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
(vasopressin) hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland; stimulates capillary muscles and reduces urine flow
ovaries
Produce estradiol and progesterone
testes
produce testosterone
GTT
Glucose Tolerance Test -- test measuring glucose (sugar) levels in blood taken from a patient who has fasted for 12 hours -- speciments taken at 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, and 3 hours after ingestion of a glucose drink. A delayed return of blood glucose levels to normal indicates diabetes mellitus.
RIA
Radioimmunoassay or radioactive iodine -- test measuring hormone levels in plasma
Thyroid function
Test measuring levels of T3, T4 and TSH in the bloodstream.