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21 Cards in this Set

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Electrolysis
the use of electricity to break a molecule down into smaller units
A chemical symbol like H2O is called what?
a chemical formula
other chemical symbols to know

C
carbon
H
Hydrogen
CH4 is Methane. What does the "4" after the H (hydrogen) mean?
there are 4 hydrogen atoms
CH4:

How many Carbon atoms?
one
What is the rule about writing atomic symbols?
They only have one capital letter in them.
Example:
Ne is Neon
Fe is Iron
The chemical formula for baking soda is NaHCO3. How many atoms make up one molecule of baking soda?
6 atoms
Na = 1 atom
H = 1 atom
C = 1 atom
O = 3 atoms
Acetic acid (vinegar) is
C2H4O2. How many of each atom are present in a molecule of acetic acid? How many atoms are there in all?
C = 2 atoms
H = 4 atoms
O = 2 atoms

total atoms 8 atoms
what links hydrogen atoms to the oxygen atom in a water molecule (H2O)?
chemical bonds
A molecule that has a slight positive and negative charges due to an imbalance in the way electrons are shared
polar molecule

Example: water
molecules that have no polarity. The electrons are shared equally between the atoms in certain kinds of molecules They are not affected by electrical charges
nonpolar molecules

Example :vegetable oil
a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances
solvent
a substance that is dissolved in a solvent
solute
a category of substances that have electrical substances in them They are made up of ions. Ions are atoms that have become electrically charged
ionic compounds
water does not dissolve gasoline. is gasoline most likely made up of ionic, polar, or nonpolar molecules?
gasoline is made up of nonpolar molecules. If water cannot dissolve a substance, it is likely that the substance is nonpolar.
the phenomenon that occurs when individual molecules are so strongly attracted to each other that they tend to stay together, even when exposed to tension.
cohension
water that has certain dissolved ions in it - predminately calcium and magnesium ions
hard water
Name two examples of non-polar molecules
it has no electrical charge

sand and vegetable oil
Sodium and chloride come together to form what common household product?
table salt
why is it that water is a liquid at room temperature, while other chemicals similar to water are gases?
hydrogen bonding keeps the water molecules close together and limits their movement somewhat. as a result, water is a liquid at room temperature.