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115 Cards in this Set

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Density
mass per unit volume D=M/V
the amount of matter in a particular volume the "compactness"
examples: g/dl, g/cm, mg/L
Element
building blocks of matter
example: iron, calcium, oxygen
atom
smallest particle of an element that still has properties of that element
Hydrogen
H
Carbon
C
Oxygen
O
Calcium
Ca
Potassium
K
sodium
Na
Nitrogen
N
Chlorine
Cl
Flourine
F
Sulfur
S
Magnesium
Mg
Iron
Fe
Iodine
I
Lithium
Li
Silver
Ag
Phosphorous
P
Lead
Pb
Copper
Cu
Mercury
Hg
Calcium function in body
bone, teeth, muscle contraction
Phosphorus function in body
ATP,protein, DNA
chlorine function in body
NaCl(salt), water balance
sulfur function in body
proteins
potassium function in body
nerve transmission, muscle contraction
sodium function in body
NaCl, water balance, nerve transmission
magnesium
enzymes
iodine
thyroid function
iron function in body
blood hemoglobin
oxygen function in body
part of water
carbon function in body
structural framework
atomic number
equal to the number of protons in an atom's nucleus. It is also equal to the number of electrons in an uncharged atom
atomic weight
the mass of an average atom of an element
Mass number
number of protons plus number of neutrons, or ,round off the atomic weight
Isotopes
atoms with the same number of protons, different number of neutrons,different mass number
group numbers indicate what
how many electrons in the outer shell
elements near the left side of the chart tend to _ electrons
give away
elements near the right of the chart tend to _ electrons
take
Ion
charged atoms, or charged particles, examples K+, Na+, Mg++,
cation
positively-charged ion
anion
negatively-charged ion
elements that tend to give away electrons, are left with a net _ charge
positive
elements that tend to take electrons, are left with a net _ charge
negative
describe ionic
an ionic bond occurs between metal and nonmetal. it involves giving away and taking electrons. it results when a cation and an anion attract each other.
describe covalent
occurs between two non metals
it involves sharing electrons
it results when neutral atoms share electrons
describe polar covalent
a polar covalent bond exist when the sharing of electrons between two nonmetal atoms is unequal
nonpolar covalent
a nonpolar covalent bond exists when two nonmetal atoms share electrons equally.
describe hydrogen bond
usually occurs between a hydrogen atom and oxygen or nitrogen. it involves unequal sharing of electrons, which leaves hydrogen with a partial + charge and the oxygen or nitrogen with a partial - charge
dexcribe Compound
a substance formed from the chemical combination of 2 or more elements
describe molecule
smallest piece of any compound or pure substance
molecular weight
1. mass of molecule
2. round atomic weights of each atom to the nearest whole number.
3. add them together.
formula for bicarbonate
HCO3
formula for carbonate
(CO3-)2
formula for Phosphate
PO4
formula for Nitrate
NO3
Nitrite
NO2
Sulfate
SO4
Sulfite
SO3
formula for Hydroxide
OH-
formula for Ammonium
NH4
size of particles in solutions
very small(crystalloids)
size of particles in colloids
medium size (large molecules)
size of particles in suspensions
large (sand)
describe solution
a homogeneous(Of uniform structure or composition throughout) mixture of two or more substances
describe solute
the substance that is put into the liquid technically the substance(s) prestent in a solution in the smaller amount
solvent
the liquid technically the material present in a solution in the largest amount
a solution is said to be a dilute if
there is only a small amount of solute per unit volume of solution
concentrated solutions have what?
much more solute per unit volume of solution
a 5% soultion of glucose has how much glucose disolved into how much water to make how much volume
5 grams and 100ml (5g/100ml or 5 g/dl)
solutions contain very small what? such as ?
particles, ions and small molecules
particles small enough to form soultions are called what?
crystalloids
crystalloids do what in solutions?
remain evenly dispersed, they do not settle out.
what types of filters will crystalloids pass through?
very large pores of filter paper and through the smaller pores of a semipermeable membrane
semipermeable membrane is used for what
dialysis
suspensions include what size of particles? such as?
large particles such as sand and clay if you let stand particles will settle to the bottom
colloid include what? what type of filter will they pass though? what type will they not?
larger molecules or groups of molecules such as proteins. the particles don not settle out.they pass through a paper filter but too large to pass through a semipermiable membrane
our blood is a suspension of cells and a crystalloid solution, and a colloid why?
because it has a suspension of cells, colloid because protiens are dissolved in it, and crystalloid solution because of dissolved salts,etc.
describe protoplasm. is it a solution?
the living matter in a cell. yes
describe cytoplasm.
the cellular protoplasm bounded by the cellular and nuclear membrane, is a water solution of colloids and crystalloids. suspended in the solution are the cellular organelles such as mitochondria, lysosomes, and free ribosomes.
give 4 properties of a solution.
1. clear
2. not filterable
3. do not settle out.
4. small crystolloid solutes.
give 4 properties of suspensions.
1. translucent or opaque(not clear; not transmitting or reflecting light or radiant energy; "opaque windows of the jail"; "opaque to X-rays")
2. filterable
3. settle out
4. large particles
define acid
substances that dissociate in water and produce hydrogen ions (H+)
define base
substances that dissociate in water and produce hydriate ion (OH-)
define salts
substances that dissociate in water and produce and anion and a cation neither of which is H+ or OH-
ph values that differ by 3 units means that they differ by
10 to the third
distinguish between "neutral" pH and the "average" pH of the blood.
average pH is 7.35-7.45
neutral pH is 7.00
define strong acid
strong acids dissociate COMPLETELY
define weak acid
weak acids DO NOT dissociate completely.
which acid has a more disruptive effect on physiology
strong acids
which acids are buffers?
weak acids
define buffers
chemical compounds that can convert strong acids or bases into weak ones
give an example of buffers
HCO3(weak base) and H2CO3(weak acid)
define physical processes
usually change the physical appearance of the substance.
define chemical processes
these are processes that form new substances, as in burning wood and rust formation. major bonds are changed.
describe oxidation
removal of an electron during chemical reaction.
loses electron, energy, and H+
describe reduction
gain of an electron during a chemical reaction.
gains electron, energy, and H+
describe decompostion
catabolism, exergenic (energy out) 2 H20 -> 2 H2 + O2
describe synthesis
anabolism, endergonic (energy in) 2 H2 + 02 -> 2 H20
describe exchange (replacement)
HCL(acid) + NaOH(base) -> H20(water) + NaCl(salt)
describe reversible
NaCl <--> Na+ + Cl-
name the four most abundant elements in living systems
1. carbon
2. hydrogen
3. oxygen
4. nitrogen
by number of atoms and by mass C
9.5 number 18 mass percent
by number of atoms and by mass H
63 number 10 mass percent
by number of atoms and by mass O
25.5 number 65 mass percent
by number of atoms and by mass N
1.4 number 3 mass percent
describe 5 properties of inorganic compounds
1. do not(usually) contain carbon
2. are small
3.include mainly ionic bonds
4. are not very flammable
5. are usually water soluble(hydrophilic)
dexcribe 5 properties of organic compounds
1. contain carbon
2. are frequently large
3. include mainly covalent bonds
4. usually flammable
5. may not be water soluble (hydrophobic)
describe 5 properties of water and provide example of how property is utilized in the human body.
1. solvent/suspending medium
2. participates in chemical reactions
3. heat buffer
4. evaporative cooling
5. lubricant
water is composed of what type of bonds
polar covalent bonds which makes it a versatile solvent
water participates in _ reactions
chemical
in _ _ reactions adding water breaks or "lysis" bonds
hydrolysis chemical
in _ _ reactions water is removed
dehydration synthesis reactions
water has a very _ surface tension and is a great _
high, lubricant