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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Intro to Realism/Naturalism: Political: What Western value grew at this time?
Intro to Realism/Naturalism: Political: Which two countries achieved political unification?
Germany and Italy
Intro to Realism/Naturalism: Political: Whose domination of Europe ends?
Intro to Realism/Naturalism: Political: Which country ruled the sea?
Great Britain
Intro to Realism/Naturalism: Political: Who strove for emancipation?
The Balkans
Intro to Realism/Naturalism: Political: What is the political slogan during this time?
Intro to Realism/Naturalism: Political: What does the political slogan entail?
1- Liberation from rule of a foreigner (the Balkans)
2- Emancipation for serfs (Russia)
3- Removal of economic restrictions on trade and manufacturing (W. Europe)
4- Intro. of a constitution, free speech, and parliamentary institutions (S. America)
Intro to Realism/Naturalism: Mindset: What were the watchwords of the day?
Intro to Realism/Naturalism: Mindset: What were the two hostile reactions to liberal progressivism?
1- Catholic conservatism
2- Socialism clashes w/free-enterprise system
Intro to Realism/Naturalism: Mindset: What were the two sources of motivation?
1- Christian/romantic
2- Scientific/revolutionary (Marx)
Intro to Realism/Naturalism: Art: What were the few new innovations in?
Intro to Realism/Naturalism: Art: What kind of painting developed in France?
Intro to Realism/Naturalism: Art: What type of literature emerged from this time period?
Intro to Realism/Naturalism: Art: Which novel began the shift to naturalism and who wrote it?
LaRoman Experimental
Emil Zola
Intro to Realism/Naturalism: Art: The methods of _______ were not to be any different from the methods of ________.
1- fiction
2- Science
Intro to Realism/Naturalism: Art: What was the author supposed to deprive the characters of in their stories during this time period?
The author's nature
Intro to Realism/Naturalism: In America: What was realism?
A revolt against the genteel tradition and a reaction to Romanticism
Intro to Realism/Naturalism: In America: What did Realism succeed in doing?
It affected the artisitic approach to a concrete program and philosophy for literature
Intro to Realism/Naturalism: In America: What was the purpose of realism/naturalism in America?
To show the truth no matter how low or ugly or evil it was
Romanticism Vs Realism/Naturalism: While Romanticism focuses on sentiment, what does R/N focus on?
Romanticism Vs Realism/Naturalism: Romanticism is concerned with the exotic past; what is R/N concerned with?
The present
Romanticism Vs Realism/Naturalism: R believes in the supernatural and is discontented with the rational; what does R/N promote?
What country is Dostoyevsky from?
Who wrote Notes From The Underground?
What are the four great novels of Dostoyevsky that came out of his hard times?
Crime and Punishment
The Idiot
The Possessed
The Brothers Karamazov
Notes From the Underground is divided into two parts; what purpose did each part serve as in the story?
Part 1- philosophically emphasizes the tension b/t Romanticism and Rationalism. It also emphasizes personal freedom of choice.

Part 2- relates the story of Liza; it illustrates the corrupting and redeeming nature that personal freedom of choice contains
For the Underground Man, what has no meaning and what does every good become?
In Notes From the Underground, Dostoevsky ________ discredits Rationalism/Naturalism and ____ discredits Romanticism.
What is the touchstone for existential thought according to Dostoevsky?
Irrational freedome
Where was Tolstoy from?
Who began a school on his estate for his peasants' children?
In what three ways can Tolstoy's life be divided?
Education, Art, and Religion
What book of Tolstoy's is argued to be the greatest Russian novel?
Anna Karenina
Which author believed that "everyone had the power to understand 'good,' and that each person could justify his life on earth by striving to do good for himself and others?"
Who wrote The Death of Ivan Illyich?
What other books did Tolstoy write?
Master and Man
The Resurrection
Father Sergius
What two elements mark Tolstoy's literary style?
Narrative detail
Concrete description
What are the five stages of trauma?
From what state of mind does Ivan Illyich move from and what does he move towards?
A living death of false values to God's living life achieved only beyond death
Who represented natural goodness in The Death of Ivan Illyich?
What is the question that lurks in the story of Ivan Illyich?
"What if my whole life has really been wrong?"
What does the word "it" stand for in The Death of Ivan Illyich?
False Values
What is the four stage process of Ivan Illyich's life?
1- Beings as an innocent child, as an honest and whole being.
2- Takes a fall into a false relation to life.
3- Falls again when he realizes he's fallen.
4- Achieves moral regeneration because of his awareness of his fall.
How does Ivan Illyich achieve salvation?
Through compassion and sacrifice that is genuine and childlike
Where was Chekhov from?
What disease did Chekhov develop?
Which author graduated medical school?
Who wrote The Cherry Orchard?
What implied philosophy do Chekhov's writings contain?
Kindness and humanity
What is the main purpose of The Cherry Orchard?
To present a social picture of the time period in history
What kind of mood is in The Cherry Orchard?
Nostalgic and sad
What do the contrasting characters of Lopahin (the merchant) and Trofimov (the student) represent in The Cherry Orchard?
L- capitalism
T- socialism
How does The Cherry Orchard present all characters?
How does Chekhov handle the characters in the Cherry Orchard?
Who are in the two love triangles in The Cherry Orchard?
1- Lopahin, Varya, and Trofimov
2- Pishchick, Dunyasha, and Yasha
Where is Ibsen from?
Who wrote Hedda Gabler?
How long did Ibsen's career as a playwright last?
49 years
What does the term "ibsenism" mean?
To reflect a critique, in dramatic form, of contemporary morality
What do Ibsen's plays explore?
The nature of reality and illusion in social conventions
In Hedda Gabler, describe the character of Tesman.
- a bore and a fool
- affected with speech mannerisms
- scholarship is irrelevant
- morally ambivalent
In Hedda Gabler, describe the character of Judge Brack.
- a man of the world
- holds a philosophical naturalism
In Hedda Gabler, describe the character of Eilert.
- Hedda's figure of pagan freedom
- morally weak, but is the only true visionary in the play
In Hedda Gabler, describe the character of Hedda.
- lives in frustration of middle class life
- feels trapped in her marriage
- acts morally evil (perverse, egotistical, sadistic, and callous)
- she maintains the air of a grand lady
What are the two themes of Hedda Gabler?
1- People experience a clash b/t ability and aspiration.
2- The individual can stand against society- defying it and escaping it through death
What does Hedda Gabler foreshadow?
Camus's consideration that the only philosophical consideration left for modern humanity is suicide.