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37 Cards in this Set

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What is a big clash between religion and science?
Darwinism
Who came up with Darwinism?
Charles Darwin
What Darwin covered in his book:On the Origin of the Species in 1859 about "Natural Selection."?
He said under some conditions in nature, animals survive and under other conditions, they die. Essentially, nature decides what lives or dies out. New forms must survive under the conditions they are given.
What is Survival of the Fittest?
those that match the environment (or can successfully adapt to it) live. Animals had to adapt and mutate to continue to survive. Those that are the fittest (fit in with their environment the best) survive. Those animals that have a hard time fitting in with the environment, may eventually die out. If environment changes, what is fittest will change, too.
How did Darwinism clash with religion?
he theory really got to the Fundamentalist Protestants who claimed all of the Bible was the absolute truth and that God made animals special (special creation).
What is the special creationist position?
God made all animals specially. Evolution isn't necessary and impossible–God created us all specially!
What are some views of different religions on evolution?
Catholics say at some point men evolved, and they were given a soul. The Protestants split into 2 groups. The liberals say the Old Testament isn't as true as the New Testament is and that no one knows how long a "day" of creation is. God created the earth in seven days, but how long is a day? They say that the story of creation was a parable (teaching story) and that evolution simply shows God's creativity.
What did some Fundamentalists say about evolution?
The Fundamentalists are still around though (Southern Baptists, some Lutherans). Fundamentalist Christians won't compromise, but there aren't many Fundamentalists around–they just get more TV time. Some fundamentalists even say that dinosaurs were never alive. That dinosaur skeletons are frauds by the devil to trip up scientists.
Acording to Dr. Stockmyer, why did evolution win out?
Evolution won though. The farther you dig down into the earth, the more simple forms of animals, plants, etc. you find.
What famous trial happened in 1925 in which a biology teacher in Tennessee was fired for teaching evolution
Scopes Monkey Trial
Was Charles Darwin religious?
Interestingly enough, Charles Darwin was actually a religious person. He thought that evolution simply showed the creativity and intelligence of God.
What happened in the Scopes Monkey Trial?
biology teacher, John Scopes, was accused of violating the Butler Act, which forbade teaching evolution in public schools because evolution contradicted the story of creation in the Bible.
Who was Scopes defense attorney
Clarence Darrow
Who was the prosecutor in the Scopes Monkey Trial?
William Jennings Bryan
What was the verdict in the Scopes Monkey trial and what happened subsequently?
Darrow argued that evolution is scientifically valid and that the Butler Act is unconstitutional. Scopes was convicted and fined, but the state supreme court later reversed the decision on technical grounds.
What movie was inspired by the Scopes Monkey Trial
Inherit the Wind
Who was Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) and what did he believe?
philosopher and publicist who believed Darwinism could work not only for nature, but for society as wel
What does Spencer's theory of Social Darwinism say?
says some people are better than others; therefore, they succeed whereas others fail. "Survival of the Fittest" explains society, according to Spencer. Good, moral people rise to the top. The rich deserve to be rich. The morally inferior deserve to be poor, so they are poor.
Under Social Darwinism what will happen to the poor?
Things are the way they are because that's the way it is supposed to be. Trying to help the poor would just be a waste cause the poor will always be poor, no matter what. That is what nature intended. The poor should simply evolve out, apparently.
What is Eugenics?
Eugenics is the theory of selective breeding and marriage. We should strengthen the human strain by selective breeding–encourage bright people to marry each other and have bright children.
What is the real start of racism?
Eugenics cuz according to Spencerf whites are better obviously cuz whites are running the world and have all the money, etc. Spencer said the English are superior to other Europeans. Whites are superior to "colored" peoples.
How did Eugenics affect governments?
t seemed like a good idea to England and Germany. This theory was used to justify war to crush weak nations. Big nations are justified in beating up on smaller nations. It was used for unscrupulous government tactics to give strong service. It was also used to justify nasty business dealings.
What President brought about the Pure Food and Drug Act?
President Teddy Roosevelt?
Did Darwin say that the best live and the worst die?
Darwin never said that the best live and the worst die. People were stressing heredity, when actually people are a product of their heredity and environment combined. Bright kids, generally, are the advantaged kids. The ones who have the money to go to the big schools, etc
Talk about other races being stupid and why this is a false notion?
It is false because the race that gets picked on keeps changing, In 1830, the Irish were considered a subspecies cuz they talked funny, drank a lot, did menial jobs, etc. In the 1900's, the same was thought about the Italians. The same has also been said about African Americans. It wasn't true then and isn't true now. All these races were persecuted by the majority population, so they got depressed, drank, fought, committed crimes, etc. cuz they had no opportunities open to them.
How can taxes help people to assimilate into equal society?
We have to pay more taxes to help get these people out of the ghettos, so they can have the opportunities as the advantaged folks
Why do people of color have a hard time assimilating?
African Americans (and others "of color") have a harder time assimilating (fitting in–what the Irish and Italians eventually did) and getting rid of the stereotypes cuz they look different.
What is capitalism?
Free unregulated business
Is capitalism always good?
Capitalism made competition but slows progress cuz knowledge was hoarded and besides there's no money for research especially in industries like prescription drugs like for cancer treatments!
What are some problems with capitalism?
Sometimes no need for a bunch of people doing the same thing. Sometimes smaller is better. Inventing and researching takes up valuable time.There's not actually equality cuz lots of small dealers must charge more than large stores which causes monopoly, inflation, depression, etc.
why do businesses like phone companies need regulation?
The phone companies need regulation or they can build monopolies and charge us through the nose!
In general the capitalists don't want the government interfering with business but when do they want government to step in?
they wanted the government to have tariff policies to help keep foreign goods out and they want the armed forces to protect them overseas
How could capitalism affect the workforce?
Workers were treated badly, with low pay and eighteen-hour days. They didn't have to work Sundays so they could get drunk then in order to face the next grueling week. There was no education for kids cuz kids were cheap labor. Small hands of children could more easily reach into weaving machines to fix broken machines. The only trouble was keeping the kids awake. And to keep them from getting injured or killed. They needed government regulations!
What is Rugged Individualism?
the so-called "self-made man." I made my money all on my own. I did it through the private free enterprise system in which the private, free individual wins cuz he/she was enterprising enough to go for the gusto. I did it all on my own, so it isn't fair to tax me to help those who are too lazy to do it for themselves
Why is the theory of Rugged Individualism absurd?
We all get help.
public roads, public services (police, fire departments), etc. public schools. Community colleges only charge 1/5 of what it actually takes in dollars to educate you. The state and federal government (our tax dollars at work) picks up the bill for the rest. No one is a self-made man. If you can afford to go to private school, you must have a rich family backing you up. So even thenyou aren't self-made.
What mind picture did modern political strategitg James Carville use to debunk the theory of rugged individualism?
"If you see a turtle up on a fence post, you have to think he had some help getting there!"
Private Free Enterprise
These businesses are not really private in their success because they count on public services like roads police fire protection, etc.