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24 Cards in this Set

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John Rawls’ contract theory
Concept of "Veil of Ignorance" where you don't know your sex, ethnicity, religion or wealth. You do know how society works and that people are basically selfish. Rawls thinks that people are committed to equal citizenship. People would agree on Political (liberal definition of political freedom) and economic (equality of opportunity and educational opportunity) People would contract for benefits for the poor
General characteristics of the Enlightenment
Human knowledge will generate on going human development. Emphasis on power of reason, also a period of critizism.
Baron de Montesquieu
Born in a noble family. Educated in law. Believes in natural laws that conrol human behavior. 1st modern social scientist. Believed study a societ you can forecast the future. Uses State of nature not contract.
The Persian Letters
Pokes fun at French society.
The Spirit of the Laws
Centers upon the relationships between different kinds of laws and principles of different states.
Montesquieu and social science
If you study particular society's, you can forecast the future. Almost implies that much of history is moving out of necessity - 9/11 was enevitable.
Montesquieu and the types of government (esp. the commercial republic)
1 - Ancient Republic - Greeks based on Freedom and virtue. Desire for democracy is envitable. Taught love of country. But very prone to war.
2 - Monarchy's - France based on honor. however can be come tyrannical ruler - need aristocracy to act as check and balance.
3 - Commercial Republic - England based on liberty & freedom. become gov't of future. since based on trades much less likely to engage in war. constitution checks are needed.
Montesquieu and the separation of powers
Monarch - foreign policy / carries out laws
Legislative - makes laws
2 parts aristocracy and people
Need independent Judicary
Montesquieu and the role of the nobility in a monarchy
Need strong aristocracy to act as a check & balance.
Rousseau’s First Discourse
Questions the belief in progess. technology that comes has a decline of virtue.
Rousseau’s Second Discourse
Origin of inequality. People change over time can't just keep them the same like other authors. Private property will lead people to become corrupt
Rousseau’s Social Contract
Greatest work - focus on how do you promote community. Wants to maintain notions of individual freedom. "Man is born free, & everywhere else is in chains."
Rousseau on property
Forerunner of private property. Gov't can't allow large discrepancy's between rich and poor.
Rousseau and the General Will
General Will is to be soverign. Defined as what is good for all. To accomplish focus on education and civil religion. Great Legislature is needed.
Rousseau and the concept of totalitarianism
Seen as Totalitarian Democracy. When an individual obey's the general rule you don't tive up any freedom.
Rousseau’s state of nature
Humans are simiple, not a complete language yet. Humans are not aggressive and vegetarians. Not social with one another. No family. No morality because its a decision to do right when you do otherwise. 3 aspects.
1 - Biological desire to survive.
2 - Sense of pity for others - proves its not just knowledge
3 - Capacity to develop - linked to knowledge.
Political ideas of the Declaration of Independence
1 - Natural Laws & Natural Rights
2 - Contract Theory
3 - Ultimate sovereign is the popular
4 - RIght to Revolution
Articles of the Confederation
3 Weaknesses:
1 - Could not tax
2 - Could not raise an army
3 - no power to regulate trade among states
Madison’s Federalist 10
Deals with form of gov't and size of area. Danger of majority rule. In large area repulican works best to eliminate factions, becauase you can never eliminate liberty. more people with different ideas.
Hume on the limits of Reason
Reason is certain because of definition, but it's tie to reality is ambigious.
Hume on human knowledge and learning
Human knowledge should be used to reform society how it now works. Gov't develop out of trial and error. You don't learn by questioning that creates political stability.
Utilitarianism
an action is morally right if the consequences of that action are more favorable than unfavorable to everyone
Hume on Limited scarcity and limited benevolence
Lmited Scarcity vs Abundance
Limited Benevolance vs Unlmited Benevolence.
Anarchy vs no private property. Most gov'ts lay somwhere in the middle.
Conservative philosophy
1 - Conservatives generally have a religious bent.
2 - Attachment to traditional life, in spite of its variety and apparent disorder.
3 - Conservatives believe civilized society requires orders and classes.
4 - close relationship between freedom and private property.
5 - Fairth in prescription and distrust of reason.
6 - Distrust more substantial change.