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38 Cards in this Set

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Italian Renaissance
Shapers of modern world, rediscovering the ancient world, city-states evolved,
Development of early capitalism
Money & Taxation evolve, partenerships are formed, insurance emerges, buying and selling and trading, cities become more important.
Machiavelli
worked as advisor to gov't's, wrote Prince for Medici family, realist, gov't is about power not virtue, minority will obey majority, money more often then not determines who rules, people are easily manipulated.
Machiavellianism
A political doctrine whichdenies the relevance of morality in political affairs and holds that craft and deceit are justified in pursuing and maintaining political power.
Mirrors-for-Princes
Literature that said you're not a good leader if you're not a good man - disputed by Machiavelli
Weber's definition of the state.
A human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory.
Reason of state doctrine
Interests of the state take precedence over other moral considerations. Survival of gov't is ultimate good, and sometimes you need to violate.
Virtu
Is the indespensable means to political success and glory.
Fortuna
Human ability through creativity can control fate
Lions and Foxes
It is a metaphor which another Italian intellect, Vilfredo Pareto, gave me the honour of recapturing.
The Foxes are the politicians who have no power and use astuteness, deception and any other artifice to obtain it, but once they have obtained it they become lions, inclined to use force, power more than intellect.

To the lions I say: beware, because the foxes are ready to take your places, and to those who trust the foxes I say: beware because they will also become lions.
Machiavelli's advise
Better to be miserly then liberal - people will become reliant on the give-aways
Better to be feared then loved - fear remains love comes and goes
No Mercenaries
Don't use allies troops
Shun flatters
crimes against own people is not always good
The Prince compared to the Discourses
Discourses - Concerned w/structure
-human beings tend to me aggressive and selfish
eduation and religion
The Northern Renaissance
Ideas of Christian Humanism, looking back at the bible, critisims of corruption in the Church, Protestant Reformation
Sir Thomas Moore
Political advisor to Henri VIII, wrote Utopia, takes place on island, family is key institute, no private property, people work for benefite of the whole, welfare & health services available because poverty leads to crime.
Jean Bodin and the Six Books of the Republic (Concept of Sovereignty)
highest or ultimate source of political power, according to Bodin it was the king and he has the final word, the decisions of other bodies can be appealed to him, but his are appealed to no one else. Should still follow natural law
Concept of sovereignty
Political or legal supremacy
Divine Right of Kings
All kings are decendents of Adam and power is absolute.
Hugo Grotius
Each nation controls its own destiny and is to be left alone
Contract theory
Concerned w/obligation. Under what circumstance must people obey government.
Classical liberalism
Points in direction of democracy, gives emphasis to equality of opportunity, rejects being born into class, atomism, private property is a natural right, work=pain
Laissez-Faire
Little regulation of economics and business
Reform Liberalism
comitment to equality of opportunity, larger welfare system for gov't, greater regulation of business - business are so powerful gov't regulation is a necessary check and balance.
Thomas Hobbes and his Leviathan
Greatest work...
The impact of modern science on Hobbes' thought
Galileo - If you want to understand how something works, you break it down into its smallest parts.
Hobbes is both an Atomist and a materalist
Hobbes' state of nature
The problems that arise in the absence of government must be severe
Hobbes' social contract
All people must set up contract and accept to those terms
Hobbes' views of sovereignty
Attributes are invisible. Ownership is determined by sovereignty
Hedonism
All human nature is to go for pleasure and to avoid pain
Hobbes' use of nature
What must be done in order to survive, the individual must be willing to make whatever sacrifices are necessary to leave this situation for the security of civil society.
John Locke's Essay on Human Understanding and Two Treatises
Essay - Theory about how humans know
Two Treatises - Most famous political work written in response to Filmore & devine rights of kings
1st-uses scripture
2nd-lays out contract theory
Robert Filmer
Devine Rights of kings -Adam 1st King
Locke's State of nature
Right to private property, acquire as much as you can, labor theory-they worked for it - gov't protects those rights
Locke's state of war
Comes out of state of inconvience
Locke's contract
Gov't by consent if gov't breaks that contract right to revolution
Locke's emphasis on natural rights
Individual is God's creature
1 - Slavery cannot be permitted
2 - Gov't to protect individual rights
Locke on consent, divided powers, and revolution
Tassent Consent an implied consent. People enter into contract with consent that they will have rights protected and not violated.
Divided powers - Legislative will create executive, people are the greater power behind gov't and can then revolt.
Locke on property
Right to private property
Spoilage limit-see extra for money
Sufficiency limit - poor will work extra for you
Lock & prerogative
Executive will have prerogative powers - power to make decisions in the absence of law