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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The Sino-Japanese War
Where and when did the war take place?
Sino-Japanese War: the war between China and Japan. Took place in Korea from 1894 to 1895.
Why is the war important?
Important because it caused an unprecedented shift of power in East Asia. China used to be a super-power. After the war, it was Japan.
New Imperialism
“New Imperialism”: Sense of fierce competition to control Asian and African countries
Social Darwinism
Also the influence of “Social Darwinism”???find more
Japan’s military budget from 1880 to 1890. Did it increase or decrease?
Steady Strengthening of Japan’s Military and Naval Forces
1880: 19 % gov’t budget
1890: 31 %
Yi Dynasty
Korea’s relative autonomy but close relationship with China
The Yi Dynasty (1392-1910) in power but in a serious decline, despite reform efforts.
Yamagata Aritomo

Yamagata Aritomo’s Idea of National Defense
“a line of sovereignty”
“a line of interest”
“A Dagger Pointed at the Heart of Japan”
Ito Hirobumi
Insurrections in Seoul in 1882 and 1884 led to intervention by China and Japan
Ito Hirobumi: Japan
Li Hung-chang
Insurrections in Seoul in 1882 and 1884 led to intervention by China and Japan
Li Hung-chang (Li Hongzhang): China
Tonghak Rebellion
The Tonghak Rebellion (Eastern Learning) in early 1890s.
Ch’oe Si-hyong (1824-64), leader
Chinese sent troops first
Japanese initially proposed China collaborate
Treaty of Shimonoseki—the content?
What’s happened to Korea?
(April, 1895)
Korea: Independent country
Treaty of Shimonoseki—the content?
To Taiwan?
Taiwan, Pescadore Islands
Treaty of Shimonoseki—the content?
Liangdong Peninsula?
The Liaotung Peninsula
Commercial treaty
Prosperity and Limits of Success: Japan, 1895-1920s
No more unequal treaty by which year?
No more unfair treaties:
Extra-territorial privileged began to phase out in 1899, and
Restoration of tariff autonomy by 1910.
What does that mean? Elimination of ( ) and restoration of ( ).
Why was Japan not happy with Russia?
1895: Russia, Germany and France opposed to Japanese acquisition of the Liangtung Peninsula.
1900: Russia gained concessions in Manchuria after the Boxer’s Uprising and leased Port Arthur.
Hurt Japan’s national pride.
Treaty of Portsmouth
The Treaty of Portsmouth
Recognition of Japan’s supremacy in Korea.
The transfer of Russian interests in Manchuria including the Siberian Railroad.
Cession of southern half of Sakhalin Island.
When was Korea annexed to Japan?
New colonies:
Taiwan since 1895.
Japan’s annexation of Korea in 1910.
elderly statesmen
genrō (“elder statesmen”)
Genrō= founders of Meiji Japan. Enjoyed power and prestige as extraconstitutional advisers to the emperor.
party politicians
Party politicians =elected politicians
Hara Takashi
Hara Takashi. First party cabinet.
Taishō Democracy
“Taishō Democracy” 1912-late 1920s
The Bluestockings
Hiratsuka Raichō
The Bluestockings: The first feminist journal by middle-class women. Hiratsuka Raichō.
In the Name of the Emperor
1.What happened in Nanking in December 1937?
Many Chinese people fled from the city. Wealthy people left first and then middle-class. Lots of poor people, the sick, the elderly, and the pregnant could not leave. Many of those left behind were killed and raped.

Charity organizations said that they buried about 220, 000 people, and the Japanese military (?)said they buried 150, 000 people. [But the director of the Veteran Library says any numbers beyond 50, 000 are fabrications.]

20, 000 women were raped. Most of the women raped are said to have killed afterwards.
2.What kind of evidence is there for the Nanking Massacre?
Japanese newsreel
Italian newsreel
American newsreel (post-war. Universal newsreel)

New York Times reporter: Tilman Durdin.

Interviews with Japanese
• Eye witness account of former soldiers.
o 3 soldiers
• Professors
o Hitotsubashi: Yoshida Yutaka: leftist
o Fujiwara Akira: leftist
o Ōmura Yasuaki: leftist
o Watanabe Shōichi: rightist
o Ienaga Saburo
• The director of Japanese veteran library.
• Journalists
o Honda Katsuichi: a leftist journalist
o Nishida Rumiko: journalist?

Interview with Chinese people
• Richard Chu (Rochester Institute of Technology)
• Wong Ying, an old Chinese woman who were in Nanjing, Dec. 1937.

Diary entries from Americans who were there “International Safty Zone.”
• Mimi Vautrin
• George Fitch: chairman of YMCA
• Reverend John Magee:
Footage of the massacre shot by John McGee, an American missionary who was living in Nanjing. This footage was part of the testimony at the war crimes trial, but has never been seen until now. (David Magee is his son.)
An interview with a Korean former comfort woman.
3.Who are “comfort women”?
They set up “comfort stations” in many areas of China. It’s a place to provide with Japanese soldiers sex service. There were about 200,000 comfort women.

Many comfort women were brought from Korea. Usually they did not know exactly what kind of service they will be forced to engage in before they left their homes. Recruiters said, “You will find out once you get there.” “It’s a good way of making money.” “You will work in a can factory.” “You’ll work for the military.”
4.Who sued the Japanese government in the famous textbook trial? What is it about?
However, some Japanese do believe that it happened. Professor Ienaga Saburo suited the Ministry of Education for limiting his freedom of speech. As he mentioned, he was very well-supported by 30 lawyers and 30, 000 people. Sued the government in 1965. Won only once in 1970. “Sugimoto hanketsu.”
China’s Road to the Pacific War
1.What is the name of the philosophical leader who led Chinese people to realize 1912 revolution?
Sun Yat-sen
2.What is his philosophy?
“Three Principles of the People”:
democracy, nationalism, and people’s livelihood
3.Who was the military leader of the new republic?
Yüan Shih-k’ai, a military man, became the president. He later declared himself an “emperor.”
4.What was the excuse that Japan used to get hold of German leasehold in China in 1915? Where was the lease hold? The name of the letter that Japan sent to China?
When WWI broke out (excuse), Japan declared war against Germany and tried to invade the German leasehold in Shandong province (location). Twenty-One Demands”(name of letter)
5.What was Chinese people’s reaction?
Yüan Shi-k’ai accepted everything but the fifth group of the demands and signed the treaty with Japan.
A large protest movement occurred and Yuan lost political power. He died in 1916.
6.What is May Fourth Movement? When was it?
At the Versailles Conference in 1918, Japan was awarded the German possessions in Shandong.
The decision provoked the May Fourth movement in 1919.
This period is politically a difficult time.
But it was extremely productive time in China. “New Culture Movement.” “May Fourth Movement.”
7.What was the New Culture Movement? What was the name of a very important journal published during this period? What kind of issues did intellectuals talk about? What is their attitude toward tradition?
New Youth journal attacked “Old China” and Confucianism strongly.
Many debates on various issues.
women’s status
language—paihua (vernacular language) movement
promotion of science and scientific methods
8.What is Marxism? Who were the major philosophers who created Marxism?
Marxism as an ideology to combat imperialism.
Marxism: Philosophy/theory developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
Origins of their philosophy:
French utopian socialism.
British economic theories.
German dialectics
Social background: bad working conditions for factory workers around the world.
9.When did Chinese intellectuals become interested in it? When was Chinese Communist Party was established? Was it welcomed by everyone right away? Who led the anti-communist campaign in the 1920s and 1930s?
The Revolutionary Alliance was reshaped as Kuomingtang (KMT, Nationalist Party) in the 1910s.
1921: Communist Party formed.
1923: The first KMT-CCP cooperation.
1927: April coup. Chiang Kai-shek arrested and killed CCP.
1931:Chinese Soviet Republic. Chiang continued chasing after them.
10.What is the Long March? Who was the CCP leader at that time?
1934-1937: Long March. CCP walked 6000 miles. Yen-an in northern Shaanxi province.
Mao Tse-tung
11.What’s happened in 1936 China? What’s the consequence?
Hsi-an incident: Chang Hsüeh-liang kidnapped Ch’iang Kai-shek in 1936 and made him agree to collaborate with the CCP to defend against Japan.
Summer 1937, China was united so that they could fight against Japan.
Japan’s Road to the Pacific War
1.What is Taishō Democracy?
Politics: Limited but significant progress in democratizating the gov’t: Taisho Democracy.
To what extent was Japan during that period democratic? (Who housed the national diet? Was the prime minister elected? Who had votes?)
2.What happened to Japan in 1920s and 1930s
The Washington Conference (1921-22)
“open door” principles
Territorial integrity of China
Commercial equality for all the nations
What led to the rise of militarism in Japan?
Washington conference?
Time for them to “modernize” military
Mechanized army
“total war”: the new strategic doctrine. A war is fought not only at battlefront but also at the home front (i.e., total mobilization of the civil population and industrial base.)
What’s happened to the democracy?
Fell apart??
3.What is the Manchurian Incident?
In China: the Manchurian Incident
P’u-yi, the last emperor of the Ch’ing dynasty, became the puppet emperor of Manchukuo in 1932
4.What is February 26 Incident?
Feb. 26, 1936: 15,000 radical young officers attacked the prime minister, key cabinet members, key imperial court officials, several ranking army leaders, etc.
The emperor and the navy commanders intervened. The coup d’etat leaders were punished.
But the party politicians declined sharply in influence, and zaibatsu withdrew its support to the party politicians also.
5.What happened in July 1937?
July 7, 1937: Marco Polo Bridge Incident
A minor skirmish in the suburb of Peking and the local commanders solved the conflict.
But Chiang Kai-shek sent an army and Prime Minister Konoe responded. The beginning of the undeclared war.
Building Bridges: Teaching About the Hmong in Our Communities
1.Which countries do Hmong people live now? Name the top five.
China – 6,000,000
Vietnam – 787,604
Laos – 315,000
United States – 200,000-250,000
Thailand – 124,000
2.When did a lot of Hmong people migrate from China to Laos?
1790-1860 A.D.: Many Hmong migrate out of China to Laos, Northern Vietnam, and Thailand
3.Who is General Vang Pao?
Vang Pao, leader of the Hmong army in Laos
4.Who is “Mr. Pop” Edgar Buell?
“Mr. Pop” Edgar Buell, a retired Indiana farmer and humanitarian worker who was associated with the U.S. Information Office was a key figure who began working with Hmong in Laos in the late 1950s
5.Did Hmong people participate in Vietnam War? Who did they side with?
The full extent of the Hmong role assisting the U.S. in the Vietnam War era was not officially acknowledged by the CIA and U.S. officials until the early 1980s
6.What happened to them after Vietnam War?
In May 1975, the Hmong General Vang Pao was evacuated by air to Thailand, thousands of Hmong were left behind. Later In 1975 the Pathet Lao publicly announced their plans to “wipe out” the Hmong
In 1975, thousands of Hmong began attempting to escape Laos by crossing the Mekong River into Thailand. Many Hmong died during the exodus process. Many Hmong babies died when their parents used opium to quiet them so Pathet Lao soldiers would not hear them as they tried to escape the country
Several Hmong refugee camps were established in Thailand by the late 1970s. The largest and best known Hmong refugee camp in Thailand was known as Ban Vinai
The first Hmong refugees began arriving in the United States from the Thailand camps in December 1975 and January 1976
7.What is Wat Thamkrabok?
Wat Thamkrabok Buddhist Temple
8.Name the top three states in the US to which Hmong people migrated.
1. California – 65,095
2. Minnesota – 41,800
3. Wisconsin – 33,791
9.Explain the diversity of Hmong community in the US. What are some of the subgroups?
The Hmong community in Minnesota and the U.S. more generally is diverse with many subgroups, some of which overlap. It is important to understand that persons from these subgroups may hold very different views about important social issues in the community

Important Subgroups in the Minnesota Hmong Community
may be identified as follows:
Followers of the traditional Hmong Religion (a majority about 70% of the population), Hmong ceremonial ritualists and Shamans
Hmong Christians (they belong to many denominations)
Speakers of the Green and White Hmong dialects
The 18 Hmong Clans and their Leaders
Hmong Veterans who served during the War in Laos from 1963-75
Hmong Professionals (Educators, Lawyers, Doctors, Non-Profit Organization Leaders) as well as Hmong Business Owners
Activist Interest Groups on Issues such as Supporting the Human Rights of Hmong in Southeast Asia, Social Justice Issues in the U.S., and Women’s Equity Issues
Hmong Working Class Families (by far the majority of the population)
Hmong refugees newly arriving from Wat Thamkrabok in Thailand

It is crucial to understand that there is no one “leader” who speaks for the Hmong community or even completely understands the variety of views in the community. Decisionmakers should attempt to get input from a variety of sources in the Hmong community before making decisions or forming judgments. Younger, more “Americanized” leaders in particular, may not fully understand the feelings of large segments of the community pertaining to certain issues
10.How many Hmong clans are there?
11.What are the functions of clans?
Clans are Hmong Family Groups, the Clan Name is the Family Name
Clans provide the basic form of social and political organization in Hmong society