Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/32

Click to flip

32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Before and After Pearl Harbor

1.How did the Western nations respond to the Manchurian Incident?
The League of Nations’ insistence that Japan should withdraw from Manchuria.
Before and After Pearl Harbor

Was the major economic problem that Japan faced?
The US supplied nearly 1/3 of all Japanese imports, including goods critical to military mobilization in mid-1930s, but applied economic sanctions. “Moral embargo” on war materials (1938), no more commercial treaty with Japan (1939), restriction of the exports of aviation motor fuel, scrap iron, and steel to Japan.
The hardest one was “ABCD (America-Britain-Chinese-Dutch) encirclement of Japan.”
Before and After Pearl Harbor

What were the Konoe cabinet’s proposals to Roosevelt prior to Pearl Harbor?
The Konoe cabinet said Japan will withdraw troops from China if:
China recognized Manchuria’s independence
The Roosevelt administration
The US replied that Japan must respect the following principles:
Respect for territorial integrity of other nations, respect for the principles of non-intervention in the affairs of other countries, respect for the principles of equality among nations, and the non-disturbance of the status quo in the Pacific except by peaceful means.
Chiang Kai-shek government merged pro-Japanese Wang Ching-wei gov’t in Nanking
Joint Sino-Japanese anti-Soviet Pact
Before And After Pearl Harbor

Why do some historians argue that Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor was not a surprise attack?
“Fourteen part message” was delivered from Japanese ambassador to Roosevelt 30 min. after the attack.
Before and After Pearl Harbor

Why couldn’t Japanese win WWII?
But the Japanese did not have ways to “weld” this vast territory into a Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere economically and psychologically.
Before and After Pearl Harbor

What was the characteristic of the Pacific War compared to the wars on European theater?
?
Before and After Pearl Harbor

Why did Japanese military not respond to the Allies’ demand to surrender sooner?
?
Before and After Pearl Harbor

What were the three factors that shaped Truman’s decision to drop the atomic bombs?
Japanese military’s inability to surrender.
Likelihood that American casualties would be high, if he waited.
The possibility of the Soviet’s entry into the war. (Soviets entered Manchuria on Aug.8, 1944. Some historians argue that this could have ended the war anyway.)
Before and After Pearl Harbor

Approximate numbers of casualties in Hiroshima, Nagashima, and other cities in Japan?
Fall, 1944: The US started to attack the Japanese home islands.
March, 1945: American air-raid of Tokyo left 78, 000 dead, 43, 380 injured, and 1,500, 000 homeless.
Aug. 6, 1945: The first atomic bomb fell on Hiroshima. 78,000 to 140, 000 people died immediately.
Aug. 9, 1945: The second one fell on Nagasaki. 27, 000 to 70,000. (Many more died later from radiation sickness, injuries, or related illness in later years.)
98 out of 206 cities were air-raided between June 1944 to August 1945.
China After WWII

What happened in China right after the end of World War II
The KMT: the support of all the Allies, 3 or 4 times as many military men as the CCP military (the People’s Liberation Army), better armaments
The CCP: supported by the USSR. better support in the countryside (the Long March, Yen’an). Dedication to people and disciplined army.
China After WWII

Who was the leader of the communist government?
Mao Zedong
China After WWII

Where did Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalist go after the communists’ victory in China?
Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalists fled to Taiwan.
China After WWII

What were the contributions of the communist regime?
Economic equality among people.
Redistribution of land and changes in the leadership in villages
Agricultural collectivism: “Mutual aid” teams in villages, sharing work, labor tools and work animals.
Subverted the traditional notion of social class.
Women’s status
New Marriage Law in 1950
Women were allowed to initiate divorce.
Not just laws on paper, but implemented by young party members.
Land redistribution: equally distributed to men and women
China After WWII

What were the problems?
Rejection of economic plans by highly educated elites.
Great famine following the Great Leap Forward (1958-1961) movement.
Lack of a democratic government.
Parallel government structure: high party officials = top gov’t posts
Political struggles among leaders.
Mao Zedong vs. Foreign educated leaders.

3. Governmental interference in intellectual activities.
Thought reforms: re-education of intellectuals
“Cultural Revolution” (1966-1976)
Ding Ling (1904-1986), a woman author of “Miss Sophie’s Diary.”
China After WWII

When did the United Nations admit People’s Republic of China?
UN’s acceptance of People’s Republic
of China, 1971.
China After WWII

How did the diplomatic relationship between China and the US change in 1971 and 1972? Who was the American president who visited China in 1972?
Nixon’s visit to China in Feb., 1972

It became a good relationship because of the addmission of China
China After WWII

When did the Cultural Revolution begin?
?
China After WWII

Who became the leader of China after Mao Zedong died? What is his policy?
?
China After WWII

What’s happened in spring 1989? On June 4?
1978: "Democracy Wall."
1979: The government suppresses the "Democracy Wall" and arrests Wei Jingsheng and other activists.
Culminated in spring 1989. Tian’an men Square.
Post War Japan

What were the two principles of General Douglas MacArthur’s policies toward occupied Japan?
The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE): the Tokyo Trial.
Punishing those directly responsible for the outbreak of the war (28 men).
Dissolved the Imperial Army and Navy.
Article 9 of the new constitution: Japan will no longer hold the army or the navy.
MacArthur and Japanese gov’t changed this policy—created “Self Defense Force.”
Who realized MacArthur’s policies? Only American officers in the occupation army?
?
Post War Japan

What were the goals of the Tokyo Trial?
Punishing those directly responsible for the outbreak of the war (28 men).
Post War Japan

What does the new constitution of Japan say about military?
Dissolved the Imperial Army and Navy.
Article 9 of the new constitution: Japan will no longer hold the army or the navy.
MacArthur and Japanese gov’t changed this policy—created “Self Defense Force.”
Post War Japan

How were the members of the diet chosen under the new constitution?
Diet—House of Councilors and House of Representatives. Politicians in both the houses are elected. All the cabinet members and the prime ministers are members of the houses.
I think the public votes.
Post War Japan

What did women gain as a result of the new constitution?
Men and women above 20 all have votes
Post War Japan

What did SCAP do to promote democracy in the country side?
?
What was the name of the treaty signed in 1951 between Japan and the allies of the United States. What were the problems?
?
Post War Japan

Does Japan have military now? What is the name for it? Is it constitutional?
Yeah, they sent troops to Iraq in 2003.
Post War Japan

What does historians call Japan in the 1960s? What does it mean?
?
Post War Japan

What is the kind of society did the economic growth in the 1960s and 1970s create?
“Middle Class Society”
72% in 1965 and 90% in 1973 thought they were middle class.
“Salary man” as an ideal lifestyle. Nuclear families with housewives.
Post War japan

Who is Ienaga Saburō?
?
Post War Japan

14. Who is the name of the feminist journalist who worked hard to vindicate the rights of former comfort women and organized “Women's International War Crimes Tribunal on Japan's Military Sexual Slavery”?
Matsui Yayori