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45 Cards in this Set

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An agreement to stop fighting. On November 9, 1918, Kaiser William II of Germany signed an armistice with William Foch of France that ended the fighting of WWI.
Paris Peace Conference
The Paris Peace Conference was when over twenty countries met in Paris at the palace of Versailles to discuss the treaty that would end World War I, however the final decisions were discussed and made by the Big Four: United States, Great Britain, France, and Italy. It lasted over four months, and it hammered out the details ending the war. If formally decided several things: France gained back Alsace-Lorraine, Poland and Czeck become countries, German properties are taken and turned into mandates, attributed war guilt to Germany, and formed the League of Nations.
Fourteen Points
The Fourteen Points was a series of post-war proposals presented by President Woodrow Wilson that outlined his goals for a just and lasting peace. The most important are ending secret treaties, agreeing to freedom of the seas, removing economic barriers to trade, reducing the size of national armies and navies, and adjucting colonial claims with fairness towards the colonial peoples. However, above these, the most important was the forming of the League of Nations which was to be a general association of nations that would protect big and small states alike. People realized this had to be the war to end all wars.
Veteran's Day
Veteran's Day was originally designed to celebrate the veterans of World War I, but evolved into a day to celebrate all veterans. Originally Armistice Day, Veteran's Day changed names in 1954 and came to be celebrated on 11/11.
Big Four
Big 4: Although the Paris Peace Conference consisted of many countries, the four that usually met in private to discuss and decide matters were France, Britain, the United States, and Italy.
Woodrow Wilson was the United States' president during World War I. He started the Committee of Information and promoted the use of propaganda. He was also the one who requested that Congress declare war on Germany in 1917, and America did so fighting with the Allies. President Wilson was loved by all because he gave people a hope for peace. Woodrow Wilson represented the United States at the Paris Peace Conference, and he drew up the Fourteen Points.
George Clemenceau represented France at the Paris Peace Conference.
Lloyd George
David Lloyd George represented Great Britain at the Paris Peace Conference.
Vittorio Orlando
Vittorio Orlando was the prime minister of Italy who represented Italy at the Paris Peace Conference.
A mandate was a territory that was administered on behalf of the League of Nations.
War of Attrition
war of attrition is a war that is ended only when the body-count is too great, and armies are defeated when they have the most number of casualties.
Collateral Damage
Collateral damage is all the damage caused by war that was unintended for persons other than soldiers, or damage that affected civilians as well as soldiers. It is things such as bombings that targeted more than the trenches or the cutting off of the food supply trying to starve armies and starving civilians as well.
Dada art is almost the forerunner of surrealism. It is supposed to be a slap in the face of traditional moments or the standard way of doing things. It's about anarchy, and all the things that had disappeared. It was believed that traditional values and morals died in the trenches, and so this is a reaction to the horrors of the war. All normal meanings have been eradicated. Most famous dada artist is Marcel DuChamps.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
This treaty came about after the Bolsheviks took over in Russia, and it ended war between Germany and Russia.
An ultimatum is a set of demands that, if not met, would end negotiations and lead to war.
Reparations is money to compensate for the enormous costs of the war. Germany had to pay the Allies reparations for over thirty years that totaled 31 billion dollars.
This is a union between nations. It was forbidden that Germany form an anschluss with Austria.
An entente is a friendly understanding which is not quite as strong as an alliance.
Triple Alliance
The Triple Alliance included Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
Triple Entente
The Triple Entente included Great Britain, Russia, and France.
Central Powers
Germany and Austria-Hungary were known as the Central Powers because of their location in the heart of Europe.
The Allies were Great Britain, France, and Russia.
Trench Warfare
Trench Warfare was a reaction to the terrible technology and weaponry developed during World War I. Battle tactics were antiquated, and the only way to escape new weapons such as machine guns, bombs, etc. was to build elaborate, nearly underground trenches.
Zimmerman Telegram
In 1917, the British intercepted a telegram from Germany's foreign secretary, Arthur Zimmerman, to the German minister in Mexico. The message said that Germany would help Mexico win back New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona if Mexico would side with Germany. This was the final thing that caused the Americans to join the war.
The Lusitania was the cruise ship sunk by a German U-boat in 1915 that was carrying over 100 American passengers. This angered many citizens in the United States, but Woodrow Wilson convinced Germany to send out a warning next time to neutral ships.
No Man's Land
The space between the two sets of trenches where no fighting went on became known as "no man's land."
Committee on Public Information
The Committee on Public Information was designed by President Woodrow Wilson to place propaganda in front of Americans in order to promote the United States going to war.
Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles was the treaty that ended World War I. It was signed in the Hall of Mirrors in the palace of Versailles on June 28, 1919, five years after the assassination of archduke Franz Ferdinand. France gained back Alsace-Lorraine and Germany lost 13 percent of its lands where 10 percent of its population lived. Poland became an independent nation. Germany lost their territories in Africa and the Pacific. Many restrictions were put on Germany to keep it from threatening the peace again.
A stalemate is when both sides dig in and keep fighting without advancing.
The Espionage Act of 1917
The Espionage Act of 1917 prohibited any leaking of information that could in any way bring danger to the country or her troops. To speak any such information became a crime against the nation. "Loose lips sinks ships" became a common saying.
The Sedition Act of 1918
The Sedition Act of 1918 was even harsher than the Espionage Act because it forbade anyone to speak poorly of the United States or her government or put anything offensive in print as well.
Schlieffen Plan
The Schlieffen Plan was put into design by Germany's General Alfred von Schlieffen to protect Germany from a two-front attack by France on the west and Russia on the east. It was a master plan that called for lightning-quick attack against France while Russia was mobilizing. Almost the entire German army would race west to knock France out of action before the Russian army was ready to fight in the east.
Battle of the Marne
German troops were quickly advancing towards Paris, but on September 6, the Allies attacked in a gap in the valley of the Marne River to the northeast of Paris and the German advance was stopped and they had to retreat. This was the first huge battle with a very high number of casualties. This battle was also important because it defeated the Schlieffen Plan.
WWI Weapons
Due to the industrial revolution, many new weapons were invented during WWI such as the machine gun, poisonous gas, tanks, airplanes, blimps, and the submarine.
"Untersee" stood for "under the sea" in reference to the submarine, first used in WWI. The German submarines were referred to as German U-boats.
Because so many goods were in short supply, the governments took to rationing, a system where people could buy only small amounts of goods that were needed for the war effort.
Battle of the Somme
n July the British army tried to relieve the pressure on the French by attacking the Germans northwest of Verdun in the valley of the Somme River. After several months of fighting, no side won, but both sides lost over half a million casualties.
War Guilt
The most sever part of the Treaty, the war-guilt clause, placed the entire blame for World War I on Germany's shoulders. As a result, the Germans had to pay reparations to the Allies.
JJ Pershing
JJ Pershing was the overall commander of all American troops.
The Bolsheviks were the Russian revolutionaries, and the political party, which was communist, that came into power after the czar was overthrown.
Lenin was the leader of the Bolsheviks, but was exiled to Switzerland. However, Germany arranged for a train to secretly take him back to Russia, and there, Lenin led his part to power.
Marshall Foch
General Foch was the French general in charge of all the Allied forces.
Battle of Amiens
This was the decisive battle, the turning point of the war, during which 300 Allied tanks plowed through German lines. After this battle, parts of the Central Powers' army started to collapse everywhere.
Four Fundamental Causes
The Four Fundamental causes were militarism, imperialism, nationalism, and no international community.
Four US Causes
The Four US Causes were unrestrited German submarine warfare, allied propaganda, hostility towards Germany, US economic interests, American idealism, and American security.