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71 Cards in this Set

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Will, shall, can, must, may, would, should, could, might, ought (to), etc., are examples of what special type of verbs?
Modal Verbs.
Modal verbs are generally used to express?
People’s attitudes.
When we feel something is necessary, advisable, preferable, permissible, possible, or we want to emphasize these attitudes what kind of verbs are used?
Modal verbs are used.
Modal verbs go after subjects in affirmative sentences, before not in negative sentences, and before what in questions?
Subjects. (We’ll pay for it. He can’t be a doctor. Would you come tonight?)
Examples of expressions that are not modal verbs, but are closely related to modals in meaning, and are often interchanged with them, are?
Had better, have to and have got to.
Are there also verbs which can be used as a modal verb or a normal verb with no difference in meaning?
Yes, such as need and dare.
All modal verbs, expressions closely related to modals and verb that can be used as either normal or modal verbs are followed by?
Bare infinitives, except for ought which is used with to and do not take a suffix (-s, -ed or -ing). [I can swim. She might be right. He ought to obey the rules.]
What are the modal verbs can / could / will / would / may / and might used for?
Used to ask for permission.
Of all the request for permission modals, which is the most polite and formal?
Might I (it’s used less frequently than the other three).
Compared to might I are may I and could I considered polite?
Equally polite.
Can I is used informally especially when the speaker is talking to someone he’s quite familiar. How polite is it?
Less polite than May I and Could I. (Might I borrow your dictionary? May / Could I go with you? Can I use your tools?)
Typical responses to request for permission modals are?
Certainly. / Yes, certainly. / Of course. / Yes, of course. / Sure. (informal).
What structure is used to ask someone to do something for us?
Can / Could / Will / Would you …?
Are would you and could you considered more polite than can you and will you?
Yes, however, the degree of politeness, is often determined by the speakers’ tone of voice as well. (Would / Could you pass me the sugar? Will / Can you buy me some fruit?)
What are the typical responses to would you, could you, can you or will you are?
Yes, I’d be happy to. / Yes, I’d be glad to. / Certainly. / Of course. / I’m sorry, but I can’t. / I’d like to, but…. / Sure. (informal)
Can may be used with you to make a request?
No. (We CAN NOT say, “May you give me a call?)
The structure for a would you mind … question is followed by an if-clause (in past simple tense) or by?
A gerund (-ing form). [Would you mind if I sent you an email? (if-clause)]
The typical responses to a would you mind question is?
No, not all. / No, of course not. / No, that would be fine.
In colloquial English, is the present simple ever used?
Yes. (Would you mind if I send you an email? This expression is informal. When used with the past simple tense in the if-clause, it does not refer to the past, it refers to present or future. [Would you mind closing the door? (gerund)]
The typical responses to would you mind questions are?
No, I’d be happy to. Not at all. Sure. OK. (Sure and OK are very common and informal responses to this request. Actually, they are not logical. The speaker seems to be saying, “Yes, I would mind.”)
What modals express necessity?
Must and have to.
When somebody is obliged to do something use?
Must.
When it is necessary to do something use?
Have to.
When the speaker decides something is important?
Must is used. [I must go to the office. (it’s quite subjective)]
When someone else other than the speaker makes the decision?
Have to is used. [I have to see a doctor. (it’s quite objective).]
Which is used more commonly have to or must?
Have to is more common. (Must is usually stronger than have to and can indicate urgency or stress importance.)
Does the meaning of must and have change in questions?
Yes. [Must I go to the office? (Do you insist that I go to the office?) Do I have to see a doctor? (Is it necessary for me to see a doctor?)]
In negative form, do must and have to have very different meanings. [You mustn’t / can’t cheat on the exam. (prohibition
we can also use can’t here.) You don’t have to come today. (lack of necessity)]
Does have got to have the same meaning as have to?
Yes. It expresses the idea of necessity and is often used in spoken English. (I’ve got to go.)
When we need to use other tenses, which modal do we use, have to, must or have got to?
Have to is used. [There is no other past form for must (when it means necessity) or have got to.(I had to return the story book yesterday.)]
To express necessity, what modal can be used that is less emphatic than must or have to?
Need is used. (Need I buy a new coat?)
Can need can be used as a modal verb or a normal verb with no difference in meaning?
Yes. [She needs to buy a new coat. She doesn’t need to buy a new coat. (When it’s used as a normal verb, it’s followed by an infinitive-to verb in base form-and takes –s in third person singular.) She needn’t buy a new coat. (It’s used as a modal verb mainly in questions and negative sentences.
What is the relationship between should and ought to?
They have the same meaning and are less emphatic than must. They express responsibility. However, the meaning ranges in strength from a suggestion to responsibility or duty. (You should / ought to take good care of your son.)
To expresses regret, criticism or give “hindsight advice”, what tense structure should be used for should and ought to?
The past form, i.e., should/ought to + have + verb in past participle. (I should/ought to have studied last week. Otherwise, I wouldn’t have failed the exam.)
Which is used more in the past should or ought to?
Should is used more commonly than ought to.
What do can, could and be able to express?
They express ability. [I can climb up the high mountain. (physical ability) She can type fast. (skill) In these two sentences, can can be replaced by be able to with no difference in meaning.]
In what tenses are can, could and be able to used?
Can is used in present and future, could is the past form of can, be able to can be used in all the other tenses.
When could refers to ability, it is the past form of?
Can. [It equals to was/were able to. (He couldn’t see clearly before operation. He wasn’t able to see clearly before operation.)
In the interrogative, how do can and could relate to the subject?
They precede the subject. (Can you swim? Could you reach Brian via email?)
In the interrogative, how do be and able to relate to the subject?
Be precedes the subject, but able to follows the subject. (Is he able to win the game?)
Can "can" express possibility and permission?
Yes. [You can buy TOFU in a Chinese supermarket. (possibility) He can leave now if he doesn’t want to stay. (permission)]
None
Can should and ought to be used to express advisability?
Yes.(You should/ought to go home now, it’s late.
How is had better related to should/ought (to) in meaning?
They are close to each other, but had better is usually stronger. It often implies a warning or a threat of possible bad consequences. (You’d better not be late.)
When shall is used with I or we in a question, the speaker is usually?
Making a suggestion or asking for advice. This use of shall is formal.
Can could and can be used in answers?
Yes. (Shall we go for a walk together? I’d rather not. I’m so tired, but we can / could watch TV together. When shall I go to the bank? You can / could go there in the afternoon.)
When we make assumptions, are we expressing a degree of certainty?
Yes, how sure we are that something is true.
If we are sure something is true, do we need any modal verbs?
No. [Mary is at home. (I’m sure it is true, so the degree of certainty is 100%.)]
Must (affirmative) and can’t / couldn’t (negative) express a very strong degree of certainty, but is the degree of certainty 100%?
No, less than 100%. (She must be at home. She can’t/couldn’t be at home.)
What modals express a weak degree of certainty (no more than 50%)?
May/may not/might/might not/could. [They show the speakers’ guess about something and there must be other possibilities. (She may / might / could be at home. She may / might not be at home.)]
Using the idea of a girl being at home, give example of a past assumption in the affirmative?
She must have been at home.
Using the idea of a girl being at home, give example of a past assumption in the negative?
She can’t / couldn’t have been at home.
Using the idea of a girl being at home, give example of a past assumption with certainty?
She may / might / could have been at home. She may / might not have been at home.
Using the idea of a girl being at home, give example of a future assumption?
She should / ought to be at home. She may / might / could be at home. (The degree of certainty declines)
Can should and ought to be used to express expectations about future events?
Yes.
Would rather expresses?
Preference.
Does the base form of a verb follow both would rather and than?
Yes. However, if the verb is the same, it usually is not repeated after than. (I’d rather not call her. I’d rather eat an apple than (eat) an orange. I’d rather have returned the book yesterday. I’d rather be sleeping in bed than (be) working at the office now.)
When the subject of would rather is different from the subject of the following verb, we use what structures to refer to the present or the future?
Subject1 + would rather + subject2 + verb in past (I’d rather Susan went to the party with me.)
When the subject of would rather is different from the subject of the following verb, we use what structures to refer to the past?
Subject1 + would rather + subject2 + had (not) + verb in past participle (I’d rather Joy hadn’t stolen the money.)
When the subject of would rather is also the subject of the following verb, what structure do we use to refer to the present or future?
Subject + would rather + verb in base form (I’d rather call Jim tonight.)
When the subject of would rather is also the subject of the following verb, what structure do we use to refer to the present/future?
Subject + Would rather + Verb in base form + Than + Verb in base form (I’d rather eat an apple than (eat) an orange.)
When the subject of would rather is also the subject of the following verb, what structure do we use to refer to the past?
Subject + would rather + (not) have + verb in past participle (past) [I’d rather have returned the book to Jessica yesterday.]
To use would prefer to express preference, what structure should we use?
Subject + would prefer + infinitive + rather than + verb in base form. (I’d prefer to go dancing rather than stay at home.)
Though prefer and would prefer are the same in meaning, how are they different in form?
Prefer: subject + prefer + verb in present participle + to + verb in present participle. (I prefer singing a song to dancing.) Would Prefer: subject + prefer + infinitive + rather than + verb in base form. (I prefer to cook rather than wash dishes.)
The structure used when prefer helps to express a choice is?
Subject + prefer + noun + to + noun. (I prefer apples to oranges.)
Another expression used to express a Should (expectation) is?
Be supposed to. (You are supposed to go home!)
Another expression used to express a Must (obligation) is?
Be to. (You are to go home!)
Be Likely to refers to a probability more emphatic than?
May / might / could , but less emphatic than should/ought (to).
Another expression used to express a Can/May (permission) is?
Be allowed to. (You are allowed to go home now!)
Another expression used to express a Will offer is?
Be willing to. (Are you willing to go home now?)
Other expression used to express a Must obligation is?
Be to. (You are to go home!)
Another expression used to express a Shall, Can, Could (suggestion) are?
How about, What about, Why not, Why don’t we, or Let’s. (How about going home now?