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62 Cards in this Set

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4 ways of seeing things
-top-down (whole to parts), bottom-up(parts to whole)
-is it possible to distinguish a thing is from what we see it as
-what we see is determined by how we see
-way we see is depends on disposition and context
Congruence/ Fit Model
useful for diagnosing what's going on in an org. focus on 5 parts
-work
-in/formal org
-people
-strategy
-lack of a "fit" =potential promeblems
Kim Cunningham Case
-use to apply top-down (how org. impacts individuals-->how rewards systems impact Kim's behavior
-bottom-up (how individuals impact org. how Kim's personality impacts corporate culture
-relations: networks, similar to John Clendenin
Why Work-individual/social reasons
-to support yourse, self pride,
-invovling others-parents
-make a difference in the world-social (ANTZ)
-want to be unique, individualistic, and giving to others
meanign of work-the work of possibility
Zander (music-cellist)-about the "we"-play to make people dance
meaning of work-the work of measurement
ANTZ-care about beinng good, success
exchange work for play
-a career plan
-a calling-work itself is the justification-"vocation"
BIg five personality factors
-neuroticism , extrovert, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness
-dimensions, not types, scores are stable over long time, genetic, goes across culture
MBTI personality-Kerisey Types
-extroverted (E)/ introverted(I)
-Sensing(s)-take in info through senses to find out wht's happenign, detail oriented/ Intuitive(n)-focus on big picture
-Thinking (T)-decide logically and objectively/ Feeling(F)-want to decide based on their feelings
-Perceiving(P)-tend to be flexible, experience life, not control it/ Judging (J)-want to get things settled and want to control life
why are individuals/organizations drawn to personality tests?
-individuals: narcissim, self-udnerstanding, belonging
-orgs:rational approach to justify decisions, everybody else is doing
pros/cons of personalithy testing (the ? of morality)
No personality tests b/c people change in the situation given-Gladwell
--can improve hiring and placement decisions
-offer opp. to captialize on "diversity"
-track record of company success
-influence employee behavior/ encourage employees to behave according to particular types
-personality not a significant factor in strong social sitautions
-people wont allow themselves to be treated as "things"
Creative abrasion
-places the issue of personality in the context of a group
-innovative groups are "whole-brained"->creativity increases w/ cognitive diversity of grp. members
Homo MOicus
aim: stasfice resources (Simon)-->max utility
-resources: imperfect info
-perception
-judgemntal heuristics
-socail corruptions
-escalation of commitment
-pygmalion effect
-all assumptions are wrong
decision making process
perception, attribution, judgement, decision making
factors influencing percpetion
-observer:individual differences, expctations, interests
-target:relationship w/ background (rabbit/duck), efforts: impression mgmt
-situation: location, conditions
attribution
finding out the cause of somethign we observe, why something happened
-actor-observer bias (fundamental attribution errors)-tendency to overestimate external factors as the cause of our own behaviors and to overstimate internal factors as the cause of the behavior of others
-self-serving bias-Tendency to attribute success to internal factors and to blame failures on external factors
Pygmailon effect
self-fulfilling prophesy: communicating one's expectations makes them happen
-low expectations are communicated more than high ones
-expectations should be realitsic and achievable
judgmental heuristics
availability:how easily you can call simlar things to mind
-representativeness: how similar somethign is to a prototype or model (insensitivity to base-rates, sample size, regreassion to the mean
-anchoring and adustment: startign from an intial value and adjusting from there
confirmation trap
tendency to exclude disconfirming info in our search processes
hindsigh bias/curse of knoweldge
people are not very good at reacalling the way things appeared before we found out the results of a decision
escalation of commitment
decision makers frequently justify previously made decision taht led to unsuccessful outcomes by committing additional resources in order to recover their intial investment
Value-claimin/dividing the pie strategyh
cut the pie so that you get more than 1/2 and other gets less than 1/2
enlarge pie/ value-creating
seek a solution such that both persons recive an outcome which they value
integrative
win/win, multiple issues (bonus, vaction, moving expense, insurance plan)
congruent
identical preferences (job assignemtn and location) lost opp. b/c of assumption taht it's a "zero-sum" game of "fixed pie"
distributive aspects
Win/lose, single issue (starting date and salary)
prinicpled negotionas
-postions are not ur interests
-separate people from problem
-focus on interst not position
-generagte many options before deciding
-base result on objective standard
psychological contract
an implicit contract b/t an individuual and his org. which specifies what each expect to give and receive from each other in their relationship (Kotter)
-analyze matches and mismatches
-contract "match" has a positive impact on org. -low turnover, absenteeism, etc.
culture as control
-culture thought of potential social control system
-means to devlop employee's attachment and commitment to an org.
Atchison Case
-Congruence Model
-pscyhological contract
-individual ways of seeing
-understand role of culture at atchison
-leadership
what is motivation
willingess to exert high levels of effor towards org. goals
-performance=ability x motivation
-motivation=desire and commitment
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
-self actualization
-esteem
-social
-safety
-physiological
McClelland's 3-needs theory
-need for achievement
-for power
-for affiliation
locke's goal setting
-process:how are goals set->must be well udnerstood, participative goal setting
-content: what are the goals->specific, measurable, challenging
-feedback: how am i doing
equity theory
what you see ur self as putting in can be differnet from what others see
expectancy theory
effort, performance, rewards go into expectancy(succesful?), instrumentality(rewards),valence of rewards(care about reward?)-->motivation
problems w/ extrinsic motivation
behavior exists only when reward exists
-satiation
-high costs of maintenance
extrinsic motivation
easier for mgrs. to contorl
intrinsic motivation
job characterstics theory-when people are well matched w/ their jobs, it rarely is necessary to force, coerce, bribe, or trick them into working hard and trying to perform the job well
-Cheaper
Lasts longer
Bigger effect
More difficult to implement
efficiency vs. effectivienes probme
technical vs. human dimemsion of mgmt.
folklore of mgr's job:
-A reflective, systematic planner
-No regular duties
-Formal aggregated information flows
-Mgmt is a science and profession
facts of mgr's job:
-Unrelenting pace: action-orientation
-Regular ritual & ceremonial duties
-Real-time, verbal & “soft” info flows
-Mgmt is intuitive, complicated and difficult to teach
Level-5
humility and professionwill
-shy and fearless
-timid and ferocisou
networks
It is a small world – 6 degrees of separation
Networks as a source of power: centrality
Strong and Weak ties and benefits of both
Network benefits
Networking smart
success=
human captial+financial captial+ sofical captial
Access
receiving valuable (and screened) information and knowing who can use it
Timing
being apprised of information before competitors
Referrals
getting your name mentioned at the right time and in the right places
Social Networks
System of interconnected social actors (individuals, groups, organizations)
Examples
Interlocking Directorates
Kevin Bacon
-degree centrality
-structural holes
strong ties
-Similar interests, attitudes, demographic characteristics
-Know each other well
-Interact frequently
-Closely related (spouse, friend, sibling, parent)
WEAK TIE
-Not similar
-Don’t know each other well
Rarely interact
Not closely related (distant cousin, great-uncle, acquaintance)
Network benefits
Benefits for individuals
-Getting a job: strength of weak ties
-Opportunities: structural holes
-Higher compensation and faster promotion: large, diversified networks
power
Ability to get things done despite resistance
-the chance of a [person or group] to realize their own will in a social action even against the resistance of others who are participating in the action” (Weber, 1968)
-“A has power over B to the extent that A can get B to do something that B would not otherwise do” (Dahl, 1957)
Power characteristics:
Power is relational
Power is situational
Power is dynamic and unstable
Sources of power:
reward (power to give rewards)
coercion (power to punish)
authority (power of authority)
Persuasion: Cialdini’s Principles
Liking, reciprocity, social prrof (follow lead of others), consistnecy, authority, scarcity
why leadesr lose their way
“golden boys/girls” & shooting stars

external gratification as a source of fulfillment
lack of internal satisfaction
losing touch with reality
craving success (narcissism)
fearing failure (“the imposter complex”)
making big mistakes (reality distortion)
shutting the inner voice
War for Talent
having better talent at all levels is how you outperform your competitors
Dark Side of Charisma
High likeability Floater
Homme de Ressentiment
Narcissist
The Ideal Organization
-Legal norms established by agreement and rational values
-Organization governed by body of consistent system of abstract rules and laws
-Members obey authority only in their capacity as members, and it is only the law they obey
-Officials are appointed to offices by formal rational criteria
-Hard work pays off in a fair system governed by rules
real organization
Feudal-like authority system based on interlocking commitments; person owes fealty to immediate boss

Details and responsibility are pushed down the hierarchy, credit and power are pulled up. Credit appropriated at will by the highest ranking officer involved

No tracking system for blame. Like credit, blame is socially appropriated. For the individual, the idea is to avoid blame; outrun mistakes if possible, or shift mistakes to others
-Capriciousness and connections are key factors in advancement. Luck is as good an explanation as any for why some people advance while others fail.
Organizations are “vast systems of organized irresponsibility.” Gut decisions are avoided, or they are diffused to obscure who is responsible.
Personal survival requires an adeptness at inconsistency—the ability to say one thing and mean another, or to mean two different things at once. It is important to know how to “play the game.”
-Playing the game pays off in an unfair system governed by power and politics
control system
the konweldge that someone who knows and caries is paying close attnetion to what we do and can tell us when deviations are ocurring