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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Know the main idea behind the Desert Survival Exercise
*Understand the idea of group performance in the context of the in-class exercise
*Know the concept of collective intelligence and its conditions
What distinguishes high performing groups from low performing groups?
Explaining variance in performance of a group:
Compared to the average member?
Compared to the best member?
Synergy in the group?
Wise crowds need
1.Diversity of opinion (brings in different info)
2. Independence of members from one another (so people won’t be swayed)
3. Decentralization (errors balance out)
4. Method for aggregating opinions (includes all opinions)
Know how groups are defined/types of groups
-instinctive (rooted in instinct, outside awareness, organic unity, characteristic psychology(->behavior/.
-cultural attribute of group , of body and of mind, evolutionary advance-freed from biology, divison o flabor->new social problems(love, hate, war))
-nominal (rooted in mind, divorced from biology, mechanical sum, characteristic psychology)
What are the requirements for being a group?
-Social identity
-Structure (roles, norms)
What is a group?
A collection of two or more interdependent individuals who maintain stable patterns of relationships, share common goals, and perceive themselves as being in a group
Kinds of groups:
-Formal (command, task) vs. informal (interest, friendship)
-Instinctive, cultural, nominal
Hill's Frameworkk for Analyzing Work Groups
-Design Factors: Group Composition, task design, gromal organization... all relates to Group culture
-Group Composition:demographics, personality, competences, interess, working styles, values
-Task Design-Reqauired activities, Required interactions, etc.
-Foraml Organization-strucutre, systems, staffing
-Group CUlture-emergent activities, emergent interactions, shared values, etc.
Group culture arises from the interaction of three design factors:
group’s composition, its task design, and the formal organization
The interaction of design factors is shaped by the
the context
When the context and design factors are aligned,
groups are more likely to succeed
Group culture affects
group effectiveness
Barriers to Effective Decision-Making
-Individual barriers
Confirmation bias
Sunk costs
Escalation of commitment
Assorted heuristics
-Group barriers
Self-limiting behavior
Abilene paradox
Bureaucratic ethic
Group polarization
Information-sharing patterns
-Other barriers
Time pressures
Authoritative leaders
Self-Limiting Behavior
Why do people “check out” of team decisions?
-Presence of someone with expertise
-Presentation of a compelling argument
-Lacking confidence in one’s ability to contribute
-An unimportant and meaningless decision
-Pressure from others to conform to the team’s decision
-Dysfunctional decision-making climate
Interpersonal pressure
Apparent unanimity
Illusions of invulnerability
Biased perceptions of outgroup
Defective decision-making strategies
Decisional stress
Pros and Cons of Group Decision-Making
More complete information and knowledge
Increased diversity of views
Increased acceptance of solution
Increased legitimacy
Time consuming
Pressures to conform
Domination by the few
Ambiguous responsibility
Slower than individuals
Are the Blue Angels Effective?
Hill’s Criteria
Does their output meet standards of those who have to use it?
Does the team experience contribute to the personal well-being and development of the members?
Does the team experience enhance the capability of the members to work and learn together in the future?
baseball-Examples: surgical team, assembly line
-Players “play on the team”; not “as” a team
Fixed positions that they rarely leave
examples: symphony, orchestra
-members have fixed positions, but play as a team
doubles: jazz ensemble, self-managed team
-primary rather than fixed position
-only team performs, members contribute
Managing Paradox
-Embrace individual differences and collective identity and goals
-Foster support and confrontation among team members
-Focus on performance and learning/ development
-Balance managerial authority and team member discretion, autonomy
-Attend to the triangle of relationships
Org. culture
“A system of shared values and norms that
define appropriate attitudes and behaviors for
organizational members” –
O’Reilly & Chatman, 1996
Uncovering Levels of Culture (Schein) Artificats-Espoused values-basic underlying assumptions
artifiacts-Visible products of the group (environment, language, creations, etc.)
Visible behavior, processes of group, physical objects
Easy to observe; difficult to decipher
-espoused values:Strategies, goals, philosophies
Shared statements about means-ends, cause-effect, good and bad
-basic underlying assumptions:Unconscious, taken-for-granted beliefs, perceptions, thoughts, and feelings
Little variation observed in group
Actually guides behavior
Very difficult to change
Congruence model "fit"
strategy goes into work, informal organzation, formal organization, people (all related/ interconnected)
Culture influences firm’s competitive advantage
through recruiting, turnover, employee commitment, corporate reputation and profitability
Culture may be used as powerful means
of internal control
Culture often forms
in the image of the leader
Culture can not be truly understood merely by
its artifacts (3 levels of culture)
Formal Organization al strucutre
-Division of Labor: How tasks are divided
-Coordination: How tasks are integrated
-Decision Rights: Who makes decisions
-Boundaries: What we “make”; what we “buy”
Informal organizational structure
-Informal Structure: influences information flows
-Political Structure & Power: coalitions, agendas
-Legitimate Authority: title, expertise, charisma, social status
Basic Forms of Organization Design




Functional structure of org. design
-Efficient use of resources
Economies of scale
In-depth skill development
Career progress based on functional expertise
Central decisions and directions
Excellent coordination within functions

Poor coordination across functions
Difficult to respond to environmental changes
Decisions pile on top
Slow response, little innovation
Responsibility for performance difficult to pinpoint

-when to use: Stable, certain environment
Small to medium size organization
Routine technology, interdependence within functions
Goals of efficiency, technical quality
divisional (product based) structure of org. design
Fast change in unstable environment
Product / customer focus
High coordination between functions
Develops general managers

Duplication of resources
Less technical specialization and expertise
Poor coordination across product lines
Less top management control
Unstable, uncertain environment
Large size organization
Technological interdependencies between functions
Goals of product specialization, innovation
An organization’s structure is
“the pattern of organizational roles, relationships and procedures that enable coordinated action.”
An organization’s formal structure determines
Who is doing what
Who is talking to whom
How organization interacts with its environment
Who is making decisions
There is not one best way to organize... it depends on
Depends on history, strategy, competencies, resources, environment, etc.
-Advantages and disadvantages to each type of structure
Increasingly, organizations require
emergent forms of organizing (“structured chaos”)
___&____ may be the best predictors of success in managing businesses today…
Flexibility and adjustment
Strategies for Change: Overcoming Resistance
Education & Communication
Participation & Involvement
Facilitation & Support
Negotiation & Agreement
Manipulation & Co-optation
Resilience in the face of adversity
-Maintenance of positive adjustment under challenging circumstances
Not just “bouncing back” or returning to the status quo
-0Organizations that are resilient often end up better off than they started
-Facing down reality,Search for Meaning, Bricolage (When situations unravel, bricoleurs muddle through, imagining possibilities where others are confounded.”)
Are corporations social actors responsible to society? Yes
-The world is a shrinking “global village”. We face a “tragedy of the commons”.
-Corporations are the most powerful social and economic entities on earth (not separate from society).
-Many of our most pressing problems concern, in one way or another, the effects of corporations on society.
-Therefore: Corporations must act as persons, as “global citizens”.
Are corporations social actors responsible to society? No
-The corporation is not a person and can’t take the responsibilities of a person.
-The executive is the agent of the owners of the corporation. His/her responsibility is to conduct business according to their wishes.
-By exercising “corporate social responsibility” the executive spends other people’s money. This is undemocratic “taxation without representation”.
What are the complaints of critics of the Beavis & Butt-head show?
Political incorrectness
Ignorance and stupidity
Cruelty (pyromania)
A stakeholder
in an organization is any group or individual who can affect or is affected by the achievement of organization’s objective.
are corporations social actors responsible to society.. maybe ask different question?
-Perhaps the question of which group is responsible is the wrong one to ask.
-Perhaps we should not look for social responsibility in groups (or in the corporation) but instead look for social responsibility in individual persons.
-Perhaps our question should be: “How can the person take social responsibility for the group or organization?”
individuals concerned about issues in their organizations have 3 choices:
1. Say nothing (“silence” concern)
2. Voice concern:
Try to create change from within the system (tempered radical)
3. Go outside the system to create change
A virtue of the person not the group (conscience)
An interest beyond the self
A matter of feeling, seeing, and caring for the life of the group/organization
Courage is the moment of social life at which the person acts for the good of the group
Courage integrates the person and group/organization
Social responsibility is hard to find in organizations
-Multiple stakeholders are affected by organizations
-Moral responsibility is hard to fix in one spot [is everywhere and therefore nowhere?]
-Moral responsibility is too easily and often evaded by groups/organizations
Social responsibility is hard for individuals to take
-“The good” may be complex, hard to comprehend
-Whistle-blowers are often discouraged by others
-Becoming a whistle-blower requires courage
Group energy, identitiy, synergy
-energy-group is a higher state of energy
-identity-group has a sense of itself
-synergy-whole is greater than the sum of its part
culture groups unite and divide, and thus
craete love and hate
symptoms of org. culture
-stories and jargon
-physical settings
three moments in jazz
-shared melod(community)
-improvisation(cooperative contest)
-reprise of melody (reconciliation)
division of labor
= an extemporaneous process whereby people organize their actions in relation to one another; given by a strong but flexible understructure of solidarity, within which persons distinguish themselves.
-mechniacl solidartiy (community)
-struggle for existence (cooperative contest)
-organic solidartiy (reconciliation)
durkheim on the invidividaul
-Collective life did not arise from individual life; on the contrary, it is the latter that emerged from the former.

-Individuals are much more a product of common life than a determining factor in it.

-Psychological life only becomes widespread when societies develop
-The great difference that separates man from the animals [that explains his unique psychological life] is his greater sociability.
two school of org. design
-let group organize itself
-impose a structure on group accordign to rational criteria
2 possible mgmt responses
-threat-rigitidty (assert rational control)
-opportunity-growth(give way to life)
peter principle
in a hierarchy every employee tends to rise to his level of incompetence