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73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
White Matter in Spinal Cord:
relays information spinothalmically (ascending) and corticospthamically (descending)
Lateral horn contains cell bodies of:
autonomic efferent fibers
Ventral horn contains cell bodies of:
somatic efferent neurons
Dorsal horn contains cell bodies of:
interneurons where afferent neurons terminate
What do dorsal root ganglion connect and what kind of fibers do they have?
cord and PNS; sensory
Where is the convergence of the ventral and dorsal roots?
spinal nerve
What kind of fibers do ventral root ganglion have?
Which nerves innervate the PNS?
spinal that branch out
Which is more dense: white or gray spinal matter?
What gives white matter it's color?
The dorsal horn has what kind of neuronal synapses?
What is a ganglion?
collection of synapses
Pre-ganglionic cell bodies are in:
the CNS
Where do you find short pre-g fibers and long post-g fibers?
Where do you find long pre-g fibers and short post-g fibers?
Pre-g cell bodies of the SNS are found:
between the T1 and L3 vertabrae
Chain ganglia are also known as:
paravertebral ganglia
Where do pre-ganglionic fibers project from and where does it go?
The spinal nerve and branches to the PVG
What are the two prevertebral ganglia?
Celiac and Hypogastric
The ParaNS has pre-g fibers in the form of:
cranial and sacral nerves
Which nerves enervate the ParaNS?
CN III, VII, IX, & X and S2-S4 spinal nerves
What are the two major NTs of the ANS?
ACh and NE
What are the two types of ACh Receptors?
muscarinic and nicotinic
What are the two types of adrenergic receptors?
Alpha (1,2,3) & Beta (1, 2)
Tone is:
how active one division of the ANS is in relation to the other
pre-vertebral ganglia:
lie outside of the PVG
T/F: There can be more than 1 synapse at the pre-g in the SNS
What are the three possible 1st synapses in the SNS?
Synapse at chain ganglia, synapse at distant chain ganglia and synapse at pre-vertebral ganglia
Hypogastric and Celiac refer to:
pre-vertebral ganglia of the SNS
In the ANS, what is the chain of events?
a first neuron (preganglionic) synapses on a second (post-ganglionic) onto a receptor cell (which can be another neuron)
Which division of the ANS enervates the adrenal glands?
What does the adrenal medulla secrete?
NE & E
PNS cell bodies are located in either:
the brain stem of S2-S4
In the PNS, 1st synapses occur at:
many, many ganglia that are very close to or directly on the target organ
Where does the majority of ParaNS enervation originate?
The Vagus nerve (CN X)
Is the SNS adrenergic or cholinergic?
In the ParaNS, where does the ACH released by the pre-g neuron bind to?
the nACH (nicotinic ACH) receptor
In the ParaNS, where does ACH bind to on the target organ?
the mACH (muscarinic ACH) receptors
Can E have both a neuronal and hormonal response?
What are the three possible hormone effects on a target cell?
Membrane Effects - alters channel
permeability by acting on
pre-existing channel-forming proteins
Enzyme Activation - acts through
second-messenger system to
alter activity of pre-existing proteins
3. Activates specific genes to cause
formation of new proteins
Alpha-1 receptor:
vasoconstriction; slightly higher BA for NE; located on smooth muscle
Alpha-2 receptor:
control of synaptic transmission; regulate how much NE gets released by the pre-synaptic cell (which is where it occurs);
Beta-2 receptor:
vasodilation of lungs and smooth muscle; higher binding affinity for E
Beta-1 receptor:
increased HR and contractility; binding affinity equal
What enzyme can be hormone-induced?
phosphorylation enzyme (protein kinase)
What are neurohormones?
secretions of neurons that are released into bloodstream and act at a distant site
Amino acid chains form what kind of hormone?
Which hormone type is hydrophilic?
What is the only site of action for peptide hormones?
membrane receptors
Which hormone type has faster cellular response?
Amine hormones are a subtype of what type?
What kind of hormones are thyroid hormones?
What is the Special property of amine hormones?
They're non-polar
WHat is the main method of peptide synthesis?
The use of inactive precursor hormones and cleavage
All cholesterol derived hormones are:
What is an example of angiotensin hormone synthesis?
Angiotensin-Renin-ANG I-ACE-Ang II-target
Where do G Proteins get their name?
they utilize GTP (similar to ATP)
What is a a primary messenger and what is a intracellular messenger?
A hormone and an intracellular molecule
What do G Proteins stimulate?
What do AC or DAG do?
induces 2ndary messenger (either intraC Ca2+ or cAMP)
What are the steps in lipophilic hormone action?
Free Hormone enters target cell, binds to hormone receptor in cell nucleus which contains a hormone response element (a piece of DNA), the HRE stimulates mRNA which then results in protein synthesis, and the protein then has a physiological response
The anterior pituitary releases:
Oxytocin and Vasopressin
What is a tropic hormone and where is it usually released?
A hormone that stimulates the production of another hormone; in the hypothalamus
What is the stalk that connects pituitary to hypothalamus contain?
Blood vessels and axonal fibers
In the hypothalamus/pituitary system, what happens?
the hypothalamus synthesizes hormones, they get moved via axons down the stalk to the pituitary which actually releases the hormone
Which of the 2 pituitary portions is considered a single unit with the hypothalamus?
What structures synthesize oxytocin and vasopressin (ADH), respectively?
Paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and Supraoptic Nucleus (SON)
The link between hypothalamus and AP is called what?
portal system
TRH or Thyrotropin-releasing hormone does what?
Flows from the hypothalamus to the AP to release TSH and prolactin.
How is cortisol released?
ACTH release is activated by the release of CRH which acts on the adrenal cortex which releases cortisol
Temporal lobe is responsible for:
auditory processing, speech, and memory formation
The tropin for LH and FSH is:
What hormones are released in the AP?
TSH, ACTH, Prolactin, HGH, FSH, LH