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61 Cards in this Set

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Celts: The Celts reside in Central Rome, specifically between the British Isles and Gallatia. After many conflicts between the Romans and the Celts, the Celts laid siege and plundered the Roman Capitol and the areas around it, including countryside areas.
Germans: Involved with migrations of Germanic tribes including Celts. Ultimately resulted in the conquest of Western Europe.
Visigoths: This was a German nomadic tribe. When German tribes defeated parts of Rome, an alliance occurred, resulting in Roman citizenship for some. As Romans used some of the German nomads as a resource for soldiers, conflict occurred and civil war occurred. This strayed relationship lead to them being referred to by the Romans as "barbarians". When a famine occurred in Rome, the Visigoths were neglected to be taken care of. As a result, they demanded food, and trampled and sacked Rome.
Vikings: The term means "pirates". These barbarians were divided into the Eastern Vikings (Scandinavians) and the Western Vikings (Danes and Norwegians). They mainly raided/settled towards Britain, France, Ireland, Iceland, Russia, and Greenland. Although the vikings came to new territories with pagan views, and raided Christian areas and churches, they often assimilated Christianity into their own beliefs.
Xiongnu: Xiongnu are a nomadic, pastoral "barbarian "group related to or a part of the Huns that move across central Asia, pushing other tribal groups into Europe (for example the Celts and the Germans). They were the principal threat to the Han Dynasty who utilized "gift diplomacy" to strengthen relations. Gift diplomacy was the Han foreign policy of giving gifts, wives and exchanging valuable goods with their neighbors to achieve peace through "sinicizing" them. The Han emperor started relations with the Xiongnu but also their rival group was the Yuezhi who they eventually pushed westward.
Yuezhi: The Yuezhi are a Turkish-speaking barbarian group that maintained in dessert areas of China. They had relations with China for a long time, trading jade. The Han Dynasty, with the help of the Yuezhi, eventually split the Xiongnu, which set off waves of migrations to Europe. The Yuezhi had a hand in internationalizing silk for when they traveled westward, they brought silk with them that was previously only centralized and native to China.
Huns: a group of nomadic "barbarians" from Central Asia. They terrorized and pillaged most of Asia and Europe during the 3rd-5th centuries. They drove the Visigoths from the Ukraine and were known to be very fierce. In 452 the Huns, led by Attila, invaded Italy.
mamluks/ mameluks
mamluks/ mameluks: slave soldiers that were enlisted as personal troops for the Abbasids. They were mostly Turks from the northern steppes and most of them came from Christian countries and therefore were converted to Islam.
sultan: abstract Arabic word meaning strength or leadership. Used by rulers who often times claimed sovereign power. Although sultans were not religious teachers like other Muslin authorities, their titles held both religious and political power.
patriarchy: A patriarchy is societal structure in which the fathers take upon the responsibility of their family's overall welfare. Patriarchies are said to be beneficial because they support social evolution as it puts a family into the male-as-provider role, and allows families to lead simple, yet comfortable and stable lives. The emergence of patriarchies brought on a response among women, which became to be known as the feminist movement.
Three Submissions
Three Submissions: The three submissions took place in the Han Dynasty in China during the time of 209 B.C.E.-9 C.E. This is in Confucianism and is when women have to submit first to their father. Then when the woman gets married, she has to submit to her husband. When her husband dies, she has to submit to her son. This shows the inferiority of women in Chinese society.
Ban Zhao
Ban Zhao: Ban Zhao is a female personality in Chinese society. She was the sister of the famous historian Ban Gu, who was her guide to morality, and she lived from 45 C.E.-116 C.E. She made the Admonitions for Women in the Han Dynasty. The seven womanly virtues that she wrote were Humility, Resignation, Subservience, Self- Abasement, Obedience, Cleanliness, and Industry.
Oppian Law
Oppian Law: This law was requested by Tribune and passed during the Roman Empire in 215 BCE. The purpose was to restrict women's extravagance and luxury.
paterfamilias: This was the highest ranking family status. Each family, the smallest unit, was to represent republic ideals with different gender roles. Families were led by fathers and developed by their wives; to bring honor to family, to lead strong and efficient households, and not to threaten but to support.
Laws of Manu
Laws of Manu: Code of conduct for women in Gupta Empire during 200 – 400 CE. The marriage was centralized to produce a male heir. Stri dharma was key term in these laws. Kama Sutra was another obligation, which was a training model. Part of duty is to become sexual active and good hostess during marriage. It was a scripture and law book. There was lots of sexual freedom. Sati was another term under this law, which meant practice that demonstrates the devotion to her husband. Upon death a women was supposed to burn with her husband at the funeral. Widowed women were supposed to shave her head. The widow was and outcast and the only way to honor the woman were to burn with her husband. Dominance of husband over wife. Inequalities emphasized. Arranged marriage and dowry. Loss of economic power and political voice for women. It is important in this course because throughout this course we have studied the role of women and these laws do not benefit women. With these laws women have less power and it shows how in the medieval period women didn’t have much power.
shakti: Referred as the divine mother of Hinduism during the Gupta Empire. Personification of the divine feminist aspect. Means sacred force, power, or energy in Hindu. Represents the active, dynamic principles of feminine power. She is worshiped as the supreme being. She is the ultimate power in all creation. This is important in this class because we have studied how women’s roles have changed throughout medieval times. In this case, women are seen as powerful. In the Laws of Manu, women are not given much freedom. In Kali, women start to gain more freedom where they are given choice in marriage, econmic role, and the freedom to explore sexualitty. Shakti is one example of this as well as Tantric Hinduism. It is important to see the shift of women’s role in soceity as time went on.
Kali vs. Sita
Kali vs. Sita: Kali is one of the Hindu manifestations and cult figures of the dark form of the mother goddess, Devi , wife of Shiva. She is associated with destruction and rebirth especially in her malicious role as the goddess of death and destruction, characterized by a black, red-eyed, blood-stained, ferocious appearance, wearing a necklace of skulls. She is important because her image created a cult of Kali worship which holds her above Shiva in the Hindu pantheon. She was mainly worshipped among the non-elites and southern India. From her cult emerged ideals for choice of marriage partners, female economic rule, and freedom to explore. Sita is Hindu god Rama seen as the ideal manifestation of womanhood illustrating a woman’s complete devotion to her husband. The ideal traits included virtue, self-sacrifice and chastity. These values were held sacred by countless generations of Indians and because of this, women lost economic freedom and their political voice. Her legend and image emphasized gender inequalities, which encouraged arranged marriages and dowries. Sita chose to reincarnate herself on Earth and endure a difficult life to provide humans an example of good wifely virtues.
stri-darma: It is an Indian philosophy which means the role of righteous wifely duties, characterized by traditional conduct, modesty, religiousness, dignity and family nurturing. The woman’s role focused on bringing spiritual fulfillment and societal stability through the education of one’s children in preparing them to be righteous citizens. Its reference to dharma has emphasized ideas about the proper womanly conduct of living which are upheld by the laws of the universe. Additionally, the woman’s dharma demands adherence to society rules of order, custom, and ethics necessary to maintain order.
Sati: This is women’s custom in Gupta Hinduism during the Gupta Empire. It is the complete devotion of women to the point of sacrificing their own life to see husband at his death. A widow has no legal position in society and is of no value to society. They’re considered outcasts without their husbands. It is believed that a good wife was not born but made. Dying with their husband was the only way to restore women’s honor to their family and husband. This is important in our context because before the pre-Gupta period, women held as much power in society as men such as owning land, playing a role in religion, chose who they marry, inherited wealth. As we move into the Gupta period, we see that women lost their status in society to be at the very bottom. This is an example of how women have no status without their husband.
Khadija: A Meccan widow who was in charge of a caravan trade business that she inherited from her husband. She is Muhammad’s first wife. She recognized Muhammad as a divinely chosen reformer of individual and communal life and was the first convert and disciple to Muhammad. She is self-sufficient and was the only one to bear Muhammad children. She provided Muhammad with support to trade routes. This is important because it display’s women’s role during the early Islamic empire because Khadija was a woman who held a lot of power and status. She also inherited wealth.
harem/harim: a place where women can gather and be free within the home. A place of status. During the Abbasid caliphate(750-1257 ce). Women were secluded for honor and status also so they could be kept in order. This also resulted in a loss of political and economic participation.
Rule of St. Benedict
Rule of St. Benedict: Written by Benedict of Nursia (480-547). Discusses how an abbot should behave that he should uphold his title and teach the commandments. Furthermore it discusses the procedures of becoming a monk and their daily activities and limitation. The number of times they pray and the qualities they should possess. Comprehensive plan for both regimented and enriched monastic life. The monasteries were hierarchically organized and directed by an abbot. Study and manual labor. In the early middle ages Benedictine missionaries Christianized both England and Germany. Became an economic and political as well as spiritual power wherever they settled.
vassal: In medieval feudalism, one who enters into mutual obligations with a monarch, usually of military support and mutual protection, in exchange for certain guarantee.
serf: A member of the lowest feudal class, attached to the land owned by a lord and required to perform labor in return for certain legal or customary rights.
Peace of God Movement
Peace of God Movement: The Peace of God Movement arose in the late 10th century and continued more or less to the 13th century. After the collapse of the Carolingian Empire in France in the late 9th century, the country was divided into several lordships, and neighboring lords would often fight each other for control. During this time, the clergy of each area tried to get nobles to attend their town meetings that centered around saints' relics, which were believed to have strong spiritual powers. At these sorts of meetings, the clergy would try to convince nobles to keep the "peace and truce of God" so that they would participate less in the ongoing civil war. The movement wasn't very effective, because nobles often simply didn't attend the meetings or would break their vows of peace. However, it helped to establish the Church's power in the medieval feudal system.
Croisade: Christianity: pilgrimage with weapons (including the cross) to weed out heretics. In a council of four thousand ecclesiastics and thirty thousand seculars, it was determined to be meritorious in the sight of God, to be a great and pious design, and to be "the will of God," that all Christians should engage in one grand system of hostilities against the Turks; that great and powerful expeditions should be fitted out against the infidels who possessed the "holy land;" that the soldiers should all wear a cross on their right shoulders, and, with swords in their hands, open the way into the holy city. These expeditions were called croisades, from the circumstance of the soldiers wearing the cross. All Europe was engaged in this project.
Jihad: Islam. A religious duty of Muslims. It means "strive" or "struggle;" struggling to please God. The greater, internal Jihad is the struggle against the evil within one's soul in every aspect of life, called Jihad Akbar. The lesser, or external, Jihad is the struggle against the evil of one's environment in every aspect of life, called Jihad Asghar. The beginnings of Jihad are traced back to the words and actions of Muhammad. In Twelver Shi'a Islam, Jihad is one of the 10 Practices of the Religion therefore a religious duty of Muslims. The Sunni scholars refer to this Islamic duty as the sixth pillar of Islam. Jihad al-sayf means the struggle with the sword. A spiritual reward is given to those who fight for Islam to recapture Jerusalem.
Seljuk Turks
Seljuk Turks: In 1055, the Seljuk Turks replaced the Buyids, a Shi'ite clan who was had Abbasid rule. This broke up the caliphal state, even though the Abbasid caliphs were still important figureheads. When the Abbasids wanted to get rid of the Fatimids, they formed alliances with the Seljuk Turks, who ended up converting to Islam in their alliance. The Abbasids became dependent on Seljuks and the Seljuks ended up taking over even though the Abbasids were ruling. The Seljuk Turks put a lot of pressure on the Byzantine Empire and Alexius I Comnenus had to ask for Western aid. This is when, in 1095, Pop Urban II set the First Crusade in motion. The Byzantine army defeated all the Seljuk armies and eventually captured Jerusalem on July 15h, 1099. Thus, the Seljuk Turks are important because they are cause for the initiation of the First Crusades.
Fatimids: The Fatimids are significant because they are the reason for major Islamic presence in the Mediterranean region. They are a Shi'ite group who claim descent from Muhammad's daughter. They conquered Morocco, Sicily, and Egypt (in 969). They were happy to rule over the large number of Sunnis in Egypt and eventually took over western Arabia and most of Syria from the Abbasid caliphate. Fatimid rulers treated Christians and Jews just as well as they did their Sunnis and let them hold positions in office. Around 1100 the Fatimids weakened and were taken over by a Salah-al-Din, who played a key role in the battles with the Crusaders. After that, eventually Shi'ite Islam disappeared from Egypt.
Nur-al-din: He was Turkish and the son of Zendi. He was what people symbolized with the ideal of what a jihad was. And he worked hard to unite the Muslims. However there was regional conflict between the Muslim groups he was recognized by the Sunnis. We learned of this from accounts through poetry. Al-din Muslims were pitted against Damascus, the city so Damascus went to the Christians to be allies. However the Christians saw all Muslims as enemies and attacked Damascus. This made Damascus weak and gave Al-din the power to overtake Damascus. This is significant because it showed the great dominion of Islam and although segmented, they were able to defeat a great city.
Saladin: he was a Kurd from the north and supposed to be the heir to Al-din. He was the man who was seen to unite the Sunnis and Shiites. The accounts of him are that he was a noble warrior. And he was the one who was able to end the 2nd and 3rd crusades. However the has smoking rebels from outside of Damascus were not loyal to Saladin because they wanted power to return to the Muslims. This is significant to the course because he was the one who conquered Jerusalem and held it in Muslim hands until the 20th century.
Pope Urban II
Pope Urban II: reigned from 1088-1099. He summoned the first crusade in a sermon at the Council of Clermont on November 26, 1095. He negatively portrayed the Muslims in control of Jerusalem. Urban promised the Crusaders remission of their sins and assurance of heaven. Emperor Alexius I Comnenus appealed to him to aid in protecting the empire from the invasion of Seljuk Turks.
Anna Comnena
Anna Comnena: She was the daughter of the emperor of the Eastern Byzantine Empire, Alexius I Comnenus. Her father appealed to Pope Urban II for aid in defense against the Seljuk Turks. He expected mercenary armies from the West, but the Pope saw this as a chance to send a large force against the Muslims in Jerusalem. Anna wrote 'The Alexiad' 40 years later detailing the story of the first crusade.
Mt. Wu-t’ai
Mt. Wu-t’ai: Mount Wu'Tai is a sacred Buddhist mountain in China. It is a center of pilgrimage for many Chinese Buddhists and is said to be a place through which boddhisatvas manifest themselves. The mountain is seen in the writings of Ennin since part of his pilgrimage was to the mountain.
to bind the ihram
to bind the ihram: Binding the ihram is part of the ceremony in which one takes when they go to Mecca. Binding the ihram is part of a purification ritual in which one changes garbs as they enter Mecca.
mojawir: Related to Muslim pilgrimage in the time period we studied. It represents one example of the worldwide practice of pilgrimage. It is a sojourner, one who resides for an unusually long period near a holy place or sacred shrine to receive blessings by doing so.
Faxian: 400ce. Chinese Buddhist monk who traveled through Central Asia to India to visit holy places. He spent more than a decade in India, and later returned to China by sea. His travel shows the exchanging of Buddhist texts and silk in the network. He also mentions pirates and merchants in his first person account of his travel. It shows interaction between S.E. Asia, C. Asia, E. Asia, and African network.
Mt. Kailas
Mt. Kailas: Mt. Kailas is a peak in Tibet known for its sanctity in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. The peak itself is considered to be a religious body and is in some religions considered a physical representation of the most revered god(s). It is not uncommon for people, as early as the emergence of these religions, to make a pilgrimage to this site. Pilgrimage has had a large effect on the spread of religions, ideas, practices, and goods. Pilgrimage has resulted in collective identity across state boundaries, personal and self-transformation, and blurs social categories.
Takla Makan Desert (Taklimakan)
Takla Makan Desert (Taklimakan): The Takla-Makan Desert is a climatically harsh region in central Asia that played a large role in the Silk Road as early as the emergence of large scale trade in the Chinese Han Dynasty. Though, the Takla-Makan is a region incapable of sustaining human life, a series of oasis’s allowed for a system in which caravans could travel across the region. This, system characterized the Silk Road as a trade route in which goods were passed from one point to the other like a “baton”. Trade goods would leave Yumen and travel through the Tarim Basin, which was controlled and regulated by the Chinese military. The goods would lastly reach Kashi, a far eastern part of the Chinese Empire and be sent to other regions of the world. Being that the Takla-Makan Desert was a part of the Silk Road it played a vital road in the transmission of ideas, cultures, and beliefs between the east and west.
Bamiyan: This town, also known as Dunhuang, was located on the Silk Road, which was used as a trade route during the Han Dynasty. The Silk Road started in China at Lanzhou and Guangzhou. The next major stop on the Silk Road was Dunhuang (Bamiyan). Dunhuang was the start of a fork in the Silk Road, the northern way led to Turpan and the southern way led to Hotan. The Silk Road helped spread goods, people, information, and ideas, such as beliefs and religion.
oasis towns
oasis towns: These towns were located in the Takla Makan Desert and formed along the Silk Road. They were important resting towns and were used as places of refuge for Buddhists. Buddhism had spread along the Silk Road and the towns would serve as places to worship Buddha. Over time, these towns grew larger as the popularity of the Silk Road had increased. This is important for the MMW3 course because it shows how small towns can turn into larger cities because of trade routes.
Simurgh: The mythological beast made famous in the Shahnama - Book of
Kings. This epic poem, written by Firdawsi in roughly 1000CE, helped to
solidify the modern Persian language and revive Iranian culture from before Islam.
Nestorian Christianity
Nestorian Christianity: A doctrine associated with the Archbishop of Constantinople Nestorius around 400 CE. Because of disagreements in belief over how to interpret the Trinity and significance of the Virgin Mary, this sect eventually caused the split between the Eastern and Western Christian Church.
lapis lazuli
lapis lazuli: This was a bright blue rock that was found in Afghanistan. It is significant to this class because it was traded along the silk road, since we have found evidence of this strong being used in Egypt for necklaces.
tiraz system
tiraz system: Tiraz was Arabic silk that was made from one strand of silk. This was accomplished by killing the worm before it could chew it's way out. There was a high demand for this across the silk road since Buddhists in China wanted it for silk banners, the (Sui/Tang) wanted it for silk robes, Christians also wanted banners and Iran wanted it for ceremonies.
House of Wisdom
House of Wisdom: was founded as a library/ translation institute in Abbasid-era Baghdad, Iraq. It was a major intellectual influence of the Islamic Golden Age. The House of Wisdom was founded by Abbasid Caliphs Harun al-Rashid and his son al-Ma'mun who reigned from 813-833 CE. Based in Baghdad from the 9th to 13th centuries, many of the most learned Muslim scholars studied here. The House was a center for the study of humanities and for sciences, including mathematics, astronomy, medicine, chemistry, zoology and geography. Drawing on Persian, Indian and Greek texts - Aristotle, Plato, Hippocrates, Euclid, Pythagoras and others - scholars accumulated a great collection of knowledge in the world, and built on it through their own discoveries.
Dhow: a traditional Arab sailing vessel with one or more lateen sails. It was primarily used along the coasts of the Arabian Peninsula, India, and East Africa. There were four types: ghanjah - a large vessel with a curved stem, baghlah - the traditional dhow, battil - featured long stems topped by large, club-shaped stem heads, badan - a smaller vessel
Junks: Junks were the Chinese trade ships that were used on the maritime trade routes. Compared to the old way of caravan trade on land trade routes, ship transport allowed for goods to be traded faster and had the ability of carrying more everyday goods across Eurasia. These Chinese junks resembled the Arabian/Indian trade ships called dhows.
trade monsoon
trade monsoon: Trade monsoon navigation was a technique many traders used while transporting goods across the Mediterranean Sea to India. To quicken the trading process, traders relied on the annual monsoons winds to aid them in getting to their trading destinations. The first step in participating in the trade monsoon navigation was to figure out the wind cycles and then see what time of the year the winds blew across to India and back. Traveling in the winds would then quicken the process of trading across the seas, as a round trip could happen in a year, a time a lot quicker than the time needed for caravan trade.
Karimi system
Karimi system: developed out of Cairo by the Fatimids. There were a lot of pirates at sea, so it was a system to help with piracy. Piracy became a big problem when the Arabs starting trading on the seas. People were given weapons to protect themselves at sea.
Commenda partnerships
Commenda partnerships: Partnership between the Muslims and Jews. Partnerships/
relationships that developed out of the early Islamic world. According to the Koran, one can trade but it is against God's will to charge anyone interest on the items that were sold. That was the advantage of having a trade relation with Muslims. In early Islamic societies, these relationships developed when someone had capital or goods to trade, and they would find someone to do the trade for them, in the best interest of their partner. Someone with a lot of capital, (Muslims) would find a partner (Jewish) to be the trader. After the trade was completed, the trader would return to his partner and split the profit. The capital is in the best interest of their partner. In the pre-dating of Islam, we see the relationship with Khadija and Muhammad and their commenda relationship. Khadija had the goods and Muhammad was the trader and then they would split the profit. You see this relationship in the Mediterranean between Muslims and Jewish people as far as Italy and France.
Guangzhou: Most important port city in China; Mosque, Buddhist temples, monasteries found here; evidence of convergence of cultures because usually where religious houses are settlements of practitioners.
Barygaza: Cuts India in half because located on river; one of the important Indian ports where cultures met from all directions; import exports included Agate and Carnelian stones.
Barbaricom/ Barbaricon
Barbaricom/ Barbaricon: an ancient port city located in what today would be Cambodia. It was technically a part of the East Asian region, but its proximity to the Southeast Asian Region (India, especially) would have made it a crossroads between these areas. Not only material goods and people would pass through Barbaricon, but so too would Buddhist scrolls. The translation of these would have a major influence on the entire East Asian region; particularly China.
Berenice/ Berenike
Berenice/ Berenike: Another port city, located on the eastern coast of Africa, along the Red Sea. This, like Barbaricon, would have been not only an important center for its respected region (Africa), but a crossroads between that region and the Near East (just a miraculous ocean-parting away), as well as the not-so-distant Southeast Asian network. This would have given the city a unique blend of religions, including Islam. There were massive amounts of Muslims migrating on the Hajj to the Near East, and other object would obviously be coming back. Same thing with Southeast Asia. Except without the Muslims. Or the Hajj. So it’s pretty much entirely different. Concept is the same, though.
Alexandria: This is one of the port cities along the Indian Ocean, and is located in northern Egypt along the Red Sea. The time period concerned here is the mid first century. It is in this port city and others, that convergences between different civilizations start to occur. An example of one of these convergences is the Comenda partnerships between the Jewish and Muslim people. Jewish and Muslim traders worked together and to form partnerships where Jewish people who had goods would give them to Muslim traders to sell along the silk road. If the Muslim trader was successful, then the Jewish investor would get a share of the profits.
Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula: The Malay Peninsula is part of the South East Asia regional zone and the date associated with it is the Mid-First century. This peninsula is where one of the major port cities is located (Malacca). It is part of the oceanic route of the Silk Road, which was a trade network that ran all throughout Europe, China, and Africa, connecting all the regional zones together.
Quilon: City in the southern tip of India
Canton: City in the Chinese mainland- the final connector of the maritime trade route- Buddhist monasteries and Hindu temples.
Uighurs: The Uighurs (744-840) were traditionally pastoral nomads (Turkic people) who dominated the Mongolian steppes and emerged as the major force along China's northwestern border. China had border conflicts with them. However, after China was torn apart by the An Lushan Rebellion during the Tang Dynasty, the Tang emperor turned to the Uighurs for help in reoccupying the capital, Chang'an. This term is significant to the course because it is yet another example of an emperor trying to create a friendship with a nomadic group with gifts (the emperor gives his daughter to the khaghan for marriage).
Angkor Wat
Angkor Wat: The capital city of Khmer (Cambodia) from 889-1431 in the East Asian Network. Angkor Wat had water reservoirs and extended its influence into Thai and Burmese states. This term is significant because it deals with expansion. Angkor Wat is involved in the expanded East Asia Network.