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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What function does skin serve?
- Prevents excess water loss
- important to temperature regulation
- involved in sensory phenomena
- barrier against microbial invaders
- Covered w/salt and sebum which are antimicrobial agents
What is Folliculitis?
- Infection of a hair follicle
- Caused by Staphylococcus
- anaerobic, Gram+ cocci
- Salt and Desiccation tolerant
- Transmitted by contact or fomites
- Treated w/Methicillin
What is Staphylococcus aureus?
- common infections of skin, wounds, airborne
- nose acts as the reservoir
- varied virulence
- major source of nosocomial (hospital) infections
- Treated w/antibiotics
- 1/3 are resistant, some even to vancomycin
What is Impetigo (Pyoderma) and Erysipelas?
- 80% caused by S. aureus, 20% caused by Streptococcus pyogenes
- small patches on face/limbs
- Erysipelas: when infection spreads to the lymph nodes
- Treatment: Penicillin and careful cleaning
What is Necrotizing Fasciitis?
- Flesh-eating strep
- Pain & swelling
- Muscle is digested by the bacteria
- Caused by S. pyogenes
- Difficult to diagnose in early stages
- symptoms are flu-like
- Penicillin and clindamycin
What is Acne?
- whiteheads and blackheads
- excessive sebum production
- Etiological agent: Propionibacterium ances
- Gram+ diphtheroids
- Treated w/antimicrobial drugs and exfoliation
- Accutane: for cystic acne
- New blue lightwave treatment
What are the three types of Anthrax?
- Cutaneous (most common)

- Gastrointestinal (rare)

- Inhaled (most lethal)
What is Cutaneous Anthrax?
- Lesion that forms an eschar
- Caused by Bacillus Anthracis
- Gram+ endospores
- Entry through direct contact
- Bacteria shed by animal
- Treatment: Ciprofloxacin
- Inhibits DNA gyrase
What are the Measles?
- Viral disease of the skin
- Fever, cough, rash, 7-10 days
- Caused by Morbillivirus, ssRNA paramyxovirus
- No treatment available
- Vaccine is available
What are the German Measles (rubella?)
- Viral infection of the skin
- Rash, swollen lymph nodes, lasts 7-14 days
- Caused by Rubivirus; ssRNA paramyxovirus
- Can cause birth defects
- No treatment available
- Vaccine is available
What are Chicken Pox and Shingles?
- Virus of the skin
- rash; lasts 2-3 weeks
- Caused by Varicellovirus; dsDNA herpes virus
- No treatment; vaccine avail.
What was Smallpox?
- 1st human disease eradicated
- Rash develops into papules, vesicles, then pustules
- Lasts 12-14 days
- Caused by Orthopoxvirus
- Treatment: immediate vaccination; preventative vaccinations discontinued in 1972
What are types of Fungal Mycoses?
- Superficial: limited to dermis
- Subcutaneous: under skin
- Systemic: internal organs
What are Dermatophytes?
- Diseases of the skin, hair, and nails (Ringworm, etc)
- Treatment:
- skin: antifungal agents like miconazole or nystatin
- refractory lesions: oral treatment
- Hair/nails: systemic oral therapy
What is Leishmaniasis?
- Parasitic Skin disease
- Cutaneous: lesions
- Mucocutaneous: includes mucous membranes
- Visceral: Parasite spread by microphages can cause death
- Endemic to tropics
- Caused by Leishmania (protozoan) in sand flies
- Most heal w/o treatment