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30 Cards in this Set

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What are the modes of transmission of airborne pathogens?
-aerosols (human coughs/sneezes, environmental water bubbles, shower heads, AC, grocery sprays, etc)
-infectious windblown dust (human dry secretions, environmental soil dust and guano from bats/birds)
What is the purpose of the upper respiratory system in terms of infection?
Components?
+-filter contaminates!
-Nasal cavity
-Pharynx (ciliated mucous membrane pushes contaminants into digestive tract)
What is the purpose of the lower respiratory system? What are its components?
-larynx
-trachea, bronchi, bronchioles
-alveoli
-protective components
What is pneumonia?
-inflammation of respiratory tract; caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses
What are some airborne viral pathogens?
-Rhinovirus and Coronavirus (cold)
-Influenza virus
-Rubeola virus (measles and mumps)
-Rubella virus (German Measles)
-Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
-Hanta virus (Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome)
What are the etiological agents for the common cold?
-Rhinoviruses
+-ssRNA picoronavirus
+115 different serotypes
-Coronaviruses
+-ssRNA virus
+only 15% of colds
+only 2 serotypes
What are some ways to treat the common cold?
-new anti-rhinovirus drugs are potential therapeutics: WIN 52084 which binds virus and blocks ICAM-1 receptor binding
What is SARS?
-Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
-RNA sequence only takes 10 days to figure out!
What are the signs and symptoms of SARS?
-high fever, head and body aches, malaise, dry cough, pneumonia
How is SARS transmitted?
-respiratory droplets enter through mucus membranes via close person to person contact
What is the etiological agent and how do you treat SARS?
-SARS-associated coronovirus
-supportive care is only current treatment
What are the signs and symptoms of influenza?
-sudden fever, pharyngitis, congestion, cough, myalgia
-symptoms are from immune response to virus
Describe the Etiological agent for Influenza
-virus types A,B,C (only A can cause human pandemics)
-ssRNA orthomyxovirus
-strains named by Type/Location/Month#/Year (HA and NA antigen types
How is influenza transmitted?
-aerosol
-very infectious agent (only 3 particles needed!)
-invades ciliated epithelial cells
-incubates 1-3 days
How do you treat influenza?
-amantadine
-rimantadine
-oseltamivir
-zanamivir
*supportive care to relieve symptoms
What are the two important surface antigens of flu virus'?
-Neuraminidase
-Hemagglutinin
What does NA do?
-degrades host mucus layer to allow for viral attachment of envelope
What does HA do?
-viral adhesin that recognizes host receptor
-aids in release of newly formed viruses
Describe Influenza A.
-15HA and 9NA sybtypes infect aquatic birds worldwide
-H1, H2, or H3 and N1 or N2 have cuased human disease
*recently, H9N2, H7N7, and H5N1 have cuased diseases!
What affect does an antibody to the hemagglutinin protein have on the host?
NA protein?
-complete immunity
-incomplete immunity, but less severe infection
What is Antigenic Drift?
-ssRNA is replicated by inaccurate RNA transcriptase which leads to mutations
-alterations in HA or NA
-immune population selects these mutations
*epidemics every 2-3 years
What is Antigenic Shift?
-Major chnages (reassortments, recombinations) in HA and/or NA
-population has no immunity to these new proteins
*pandemics every 10-40 years
What is the most common childhood respiratory disease?
-Respiratory Syncytial virus (RSV)
What are the signs and symptoms of RSV?
-fever, runny-nose, coughing
-mild cold-like symptoms in older children and adults
-symptoms caused by bronchiole plugs of dead cells and mucus and immune cell responses
Describe the etiological agent for RSV.
-RSV
--ssRNA virus
-formation of syncytia help viruses evade immune system and infect new cells
How is RSV transmitted and treated?
-close contact with infected persons
-suportive treatment for young children
What are some signs/symptoms of Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome?
-hemorrhagic fever
-head and body aches, malaise, dry cough, pneumonia, pulmonary capillary leakage
-death in 50% of cases through shock, pulmonary edema, cardiac arrest
Describe the etiological agent for the Hantavirus.
-Hantavirus
-enveloped segmented -ssRNA virus
-related to Ebola virus
-found in rodents
How does the Hanta virus enter the body?
-inhale infected rodent excrement or saliva
How do you treat Hanta virus?
-supportive care, no vax yet