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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are two ways to make artificial immunity?
What is active immunity?
-administration of a vaccine so that the patient actively mounts a protective immune response
What is passive immunity?
-individual acquires immunity through the transfer of antibodies formed by an immune individual or animal
What are three types of vaccines?
-attenuated (live)
-killed (inactivated)
Describe attenuated vaccines.
-modified live vaccines
-uses live pathogens that have reduced virulence so they don't cause disease
Describe killed, or inactivated, vaccines.
-either whole agen vaccines produced with deactivated, but whole microbes, OR subunit vaccines produced with antigenic fragments of microbes
What is a toxoid vaccine?
-chemically or thermally modified toxins used to stimulate active immunity
What are two types of aquired immunity?
How are these split?
*can be split into active or passive
What is naturally acquired immunity?
-immune response against antigens encounterd in daily life
What is artificially acquired immunity?
-response to antigens introduced via a vaccine
What is active acquired immunity?
-active response to antigens via humoral or cell-mediated response
*natural= infections
artificial= antigen in vaccine
What is passive acquired immunity?
-passively receive antibodies from another individual
*natural= placenta or milk
artificial= antisera and antitoxins (preformed antibodies)
What is herd immunity?
-when an individual is vaccinated and infects those around them
In attenuated viral viaccines, what happens?
-vaccine triggers a cell-mediated immune response dominated by TH1 and cytotoxix T cells
What can attenuated vaccines contain and result in?
-contain replicating microbes to stimulate stong immune response (from large number of antigens present)
-can result in mild infections but no disease
What are some problems with attenuated vaccines?
-may retain enough virulence to cause disease in immunosuppressed individuals
-pregnancy; crossing placenta
-modified viruses may revert to wild type or mutate to a virulent form
Overall, what are some problems with vaccinating?
-mild toxicity
-anaphylactic shock
-residual virulence
-certain vaccines cause/trigger autism, diabetes, and asthma (unsubstantiated!!)
What is the down-side to toxoid vaccines?
-require multiple doses to stimulate antibody-mediated immunity
*still useful for some bacterial diseases though
What is the current target for new vaccine technology?
Currently, what can be done?
-make vaccine that are more effective, cheaper, and safer!
-a variety of recombinant DNA techniques can be used to make improved vaccines
Why are inactive vaccines safer than attenuated?
-can not replicate or mutate to virulent form
How are inactivated vaccines inactivated?
What is most important to preventing while doing this?
-formaldehyde (cross-links proteins and nucleic acids)
-must not alter antigens responsible for stimulating protective immunity
How do inactivated vaccines work in the body?
-recognized as exogenous antigens and stimulate TH2 response
-this promotes antibody-mediated immunity
What are 4 problems with inactivated vaccines?
-no herd immunity
-inflammatory response from nonantigenic portions of microbe
-antigenically weak
-high or multiple doses, or use of adjuvants may cuase allergic reactions (though more effective)
What is an adjuvant?
-substance that increases the antigenicity of the vaccine
What does being antigenically weak mean?
-microbes don't reproduce and provide many antigenic molecules to stimulate the immune response
What is used in immune testing?
-antigen-antibody interactions in blood and serum diagnostically
How is the proper immune test chosen?
-based on suspected diagnosis
-cost to perform test
-speed of result
What are the two ways to test antigen-antibody interactions during immune testing?
-use known antibodies to detect antigens associated with infection
-use antigens to detect antibodies in patients blood to determine exposure to specific pathogen
What is antiserum?
-serum from human or animal donors that have been infected with the disease or immunized against it
What are the limitations of passive immunity?
-contain antibodies for multiple antigens
-repeated injections can trigger allergic reactions
-antisera may be contaminated with virus
-antibodies of antisera are degraded relatively quickly
What is the most beneficial aspect of passive immunity vaccination?
-quick protection against recent infection