Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
staphylococcus epidermidis
found in regions of high moisture
propionibacterium acnes
causes ances vulgaris
normal fungal skin inhabitant
lactoperoxidase and lysozyme
enzymes found in mouth that act as antibiotics
streptococcus sobrinus
leads to tooth decay
streptococcus mutans
aids in biofilm formation of teeth

adheres to surface with the aid of dextran
helicobacter pylori
lives in mucous membrane of stomach.

neutralizes pH and causes stomach ulcers
beneficial effects of intestinal microbes
1. vitamin synthesis
2. glycosidase activity
3. steroid metabolism
lactobacillus acidophilus
ferments glycogen to produce lactic acid in vagina
breaks down connective tissue
breaks down collagen
destroys fibrin of blood clots
causes blood to clot
breaks down host cell membra
AB toxin
B part binds to receptor cell
A part enters the cell and binds with ribosome to block tRNA
Botulism toxin

Tetanus toxin
blocks neurotransmitter function and causes relaxing of muscles

overflows neurotransmitter functioncausing spastic paralysis
Cholera toxin
AB toxin that causes increase in cyclic AMP and excretion of salt ions to cause fluid loss
Shiga toxin
AB toxin that cuts ribosomal RNA
Limulus amoebocyte assay
test for endotoxins using blood of limulus
Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus
HA-MRSA - healthcare associated
CA-MRSA - community
VISA - vacomycin intermidiate
VRSA - resistant
Clostridium difficile
causes flu like symptoms from spores usually in hospital settings
methods of disease control
reservoir control
transmission control
Streptococcus pyogenes
Scarlet fever - carry lysogenic bacteriophage

Rheumatic Fever - bacteria cell resembles normal human suface antigen causing autoimmune response

Invasive infections - exotoxins and M-protein causes hyper-immune response leading to tissue destuction

necrotizing facscitis

streptococcal pharyngitis - strep throat
streptococcus agalactiae
Group B strep that causes infection in newborns, pregnant women, and elderly
streptococcus pneumoniae

bacterial meningitis
corynebacterium diphtheriae
causes diphtheria that can make pseudomembranes that block airway
bordetella pertussis
causes pertussis (whooping cough)

binds to cells with filamentous hemagglutinin

produces cyclic AMP which leads to tissue damage
mycobacterium tuberculosis
causes tuberculosis

lives in macrophages

causes hypersensitive immune responses that create tubercles which can calcify

MDR-TB and XDR-TB are antibiotic resistant
neisseria meningitidis
haemophilus influenzae
streptococcus pneumoniae
causes of meningitis
causes of common cold

more common in children
avian inflenza
rubeola virus
Measles - cough, fever, nasal discharge, rash
Mumps - inflammation of salivary glands, swelling of neck
Rubella - milder symptoms than measles
varicella-zoster virus

can be activated later in life to cause shingles
S. aureus and S. epidermidis
acne, abcess, impetigo, septecimia, enterditis, otidis media, endocarditis
A - transmitted by shellfish/contaminated food

B- causes cirrhosis of the liver and is transmitted sexually, needles, tattooing, and blood transfusions

C- similar to B but has milder symptoms originally
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
gonorrhea - diplococcus, non-motile cell that cannot live outside of the body and infects genitourinary tract, eye, rectum, and throat
Treponema pallidum
Syphilis - Forms chancre, spreads to other tissues (may cause skin rash), can infect bone and nervous system
chlamydia trachomatis
Chlamydia / Trachoma - Complex life cycle where elementary bodies enter cell through endocytosis then differentiate to reticulate bodies which multiply into more elementary bodies and exit cell
herpes simplex virus
HIV infects host cells containing surface proteins CD4 and CCR5.
Viral protein gp120 binds to these sites

opprotunistic pathogens lie pneumocystis jiroveci, candida albicans, and toxoplasma gondii kill host
bacillus anthracis
anthrax - routes of infection are cutaneous, inhalation, and gastrointestinal
clostridium botulinum
botulism - very powerful toxin
yersinia pestis
plague - pneumonic, bubonic, septicemic
francisella tularensis
tularemia - transmitted by mood tick or deer fly.
causes skin ulcers, inflamed eyes, sore throat, oral ulcers, swollen lymph glands, or pneumonia
variola virus
viral hemorrhagic fever
ebola - highly contagious

causes bleeding, blood clots, damage to retina, mucousa and other organs.
rabies - very fatal disease if not given post exposure vaccination.

infects spinal cord, brainstem and cerebellum

negri bodies are found in brain samples
deer mouse host, caused by inhalation of dried fecal matter.

causes pulmonary syndromes: fever, muscle aches, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndromes
legionella pneumophila
legionnaires' disease - waterborne organism that lives in aomeba and can be inhaled in droplets

lives inside macrophages in humans

can cause milder form Pontiac fever which has flu-like symptoms
Rickettsia ricketsii
rocky mountain spotted fever - fever, headache, severe rash, vomiting, diarrhea
ehrlichia family
ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis - flulike symptoms but can be life threatening
rickettsia prowazekii
typhus - human - to - human transmission or head lice

"war fever"
coxiella burnetii
q-fever - contact with animal urine, feces, milk, or other fluids
borrelia burgdorferi
lyme disease - transmitted by ticks. Red ring around site of infection. leads to heart inflamation, neurological problems, and arthritis
plasmodium falciparum
malaria - (also caused by p. vivax, p. ovale, and p. malariae) complex life cycle
eukaryotic protozoan
histoplasma capsulatum
histoplasmosis - fungus that infect lungs
caused by inhalation of spores from bird or bat droppings
coccidioides immitis
cocciodiodomycosis - fungal lung infection
athletes foot
staphylococcus aureus
clostridium perfringens
clostridium botulinum
bacterial pathogens that can cause food poisoning

c. perfingens is most prevalent food poisoning in US
campylobacter jejuni
campylobacteriosis - causes diarrheal illness
listeria monocytogenes
listerosis - psychrotolerant
transmitted through dairy products and more
pathogenic escherichia coli O157:H7
can cause intestinal bleeding

make a shiga-like toxin (STEC)

produce toxin that causes intestines to excrete excessive fluid (ETEC)
growing virus that causes cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
vibrio cholerae
cholera - accidental injestion of fecal contaminated water

bacteria attaches to small intestine and excretes toxin that causes excessive diarrhea
giardia and cryptosporidium
cause food poisoning