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63 Cards in this Set

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marketing research
planning, collecting, analyzing data for an objective purchase and preparing for managerial use
4 ways marketing research is used
to achieve the quality desired by customers
assesses the customer service and customer satisfaction
helps companies keep customers
understand trends in market place
marketing concept
focuses on 3 things: consumer orientation, goal orientation, and system orientation
consumer orientation
focuses on delivering the product/service to consumers to satisfy needs
goal orientation
achieve the corps goals, but must not sacrifice consumer orientation. delicate balance sometimes
systems orientation
systems in place to:
be focused on the consumer
find their needs
find opportunities
relay this info to company
2 roles of marketing research
determine effectiveness of current marketing mix
explore new opportunities (segmenting, new products etc)
3 functions of served by marketing research
descriptive-gets the facts only
diagnostic- explains data and how it relates to use
predictive-uses these 2 to predict results of a marketing action
marketing strategy
making long term goals taking into account the firms internal capabilities and external environment, both now and in the future
four research methods
survey, observation, experiments, other quantitative methods
Attitude
enduring motivational, emotional, perceptual, cognitive responses..
graphic scale
graphic continuum where you just mark in bt where you feel is right
two extremes
advantages
-easy to use/create
- allows for fine distinctions
disadvantages
-tends to force respondents to the middle
itemized rating scales
similar to graphic but they must select from a limited number of ordered categories.
starting items are rotated to eliminate order bias
disadvantage
- does not allow for fine distinctions
rank order scales
compare two or more items
gives only ordinal data, no feelings on intensity of feelings
q-sorting
60-120 cards
usually have them placed in categories that then will give them a normal distribution
goal is to uncover groups of individuals with similar attitudes
paired comparison
pick one of two objects based on a criteria
constant sum scales
divide usually 100 points into at least 2 attributes
most researchers say 10 attributes is the limit
semantic differential scales
rank an attribute between two opposite adjectives. the mean of each question is then plotted on a profile or an image. looks like a seismograph
advantages
-quick means of examining strenghts of weaknesses
- realiable to make decisions/predictions
disadvantages
-must create custom scales
-number of divisions on the scale varies (usually go with 7)
halo effect
when the image is dominated by the overall impression of a concept.
to reduce this effect, switch order of each question to make respondant think about each adjective.
stapel scales
rate from -5 to +5 a descriptor adjective fits a concept
ie how easy is ebay navigaion (+3) if relatively easy
advantages
-keeps from developing bipolar pairs
disadvantages
-descriptor adjectives can worded in a negative, neutral, positve light
likert scale
level of agreement or disagreement
advantages
-respondent must consider one statement at a time
when borrowing a scale...
understand the nature of the construct that was measured
scope of the measurement
content and phrasing of the scale items to a specific population
balanced scale
same number of positive and negative categories
non-balanced
weighted towards either positive or negative end
number of scale categories
odd or even
odd can allow respondent to choose neutral
even means they have to choose a position
programmatic research
goal is to develop marketing options thru market segmentation, product usage etc
selective research
tests different alternatives
evaluative research
assesses program performance
tracks ad recall, customer attitude, etc
research request
internal request
describes potential research project, benefits, estimated costs
request for proposal (RFP)
external request
invitation to research firm to submit a proposal
marketing research proposal
developed by the resesarch firm that has research objectives, resarch design, timeline, cost
problem definition process
1. recognize problem/opportunity
2. discover why you need the info
3. understand the environment
-industry, firm, firms product/service, target market
4. use symptoms to clarify problem
5. turn the management prob into a marketing research prob
6. determine whether the information already exists
7. determine whether the research question can be answered
8. state the research objectives
research design
the plan to follow to answer research question
creating the research design
no single best research design bc there are trade-offs with every method.
usually quality-cost trade off
descriptive studies
cross sectional and longitudinal
cross sectional- snapshot. same survey, different sample
longitudinal- same sample and same survey
causal studies
research to see if one varialbe effects another variable
temporal sequence
criterion for causality
follows closely the hypothesized cause
concomitant variation
the degree to which a cause and an effect occur together
spurious association
unexamined or unscreened varialbes are causing change on the dependant variable
probability sample
every element in the population has a non-zero change of being selected
-allows you to estimate the sampling error
nonprobability sample
chance of getting selected are unknown
-researches cannot calculate sampling error
sample error
even when everything is done corectly, the results are still subjected to chance variation
-chance variation is reduced by increasing pop size
systematic error
errors made from the research design and how it was collected
- includes all errors except sample error
three types of sample error
frame, population specification, sample population
frame error
incomplete/innacurate sampling frame
-so it is a bad list of what attributes segment a population
population specification error
doesnt identify the population
-so frame error doesnt identify the right sample, this doesnt identify the right population
selection error
incomplete sampling procedures (problematic in nonproblematic samples)
measurement error
exists when you get the wrong information that you were trying to find
-trying to find out why louisville the city sucks and then finding out why their new stadium sucks
surrogate information error
discrepancy bt what info is needed to solve the problem and the info sought by the researcher.
-miscommunication from manager to researcher
measurement instrument bias
known as questionnaire biased
results from the design of the measurement instrument (surveys usually_
nonresponse bias
systematic difference bt those that rspond and those that do not
-mail surveys have a response rate of 5%
refusal rate
risen from 52 to 60 in 1992
response bias
when people answer a question incorrectly
-could be deliberate of unconscious
advantages to survey research on internet
low cost
no geographic barriers
executed quickly
personalization
can reach hard-to-reach
higher response rates
disadvantages of survey research on internet
not everyone has internet
information security
anyone can take it if not password protected
what is SSL
computer encryption system that secures peoples responses to online surveys
factors that determine survey method
how accurate you want it
the budget you have to work with
how involved you need the respondents to be
quality of the date needed
length of the questionnaire
search cost
structure of the survey
role of a questionnaire
provides standardization and uniformity in the data gathering process
three criteria for a good survey
provides the decision making info
considers the population/segment
meets editing and coding requirements
some things the questionnaire must have
must:
accomodate all research objectives
speaks to respondant in an understandable language
convenient for interviewER
easy to edit and check
must be able to translate into findings
things to avoid on a questionnaire
either/or questions
future intent/usage questions
hypothetical questions
negatively phrased or double negative questions
determinant attitudes
attitudes that are most closely related to purchase behavior
-research design must identify these attitudes and figure out how strong they are
three approaches to finding determinant attitudes
direct questioning
indirect questioning
observation

-need to use at least 2 to overcome trade-offs that each approach has