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140 Cards in this Set

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In organizations, the best predictor of "contextual performance is:
a. a personality measure
b. a cognitive ability test
c. a BIB
d. a work sample
a. personality (especially dependability) seems to be the best predictor of contextual performance
Although cognitive ability is the best overall predictor of ______, _____ is a better predictor of contextual performance.
cognitive ability; personality
Feminist object relations theory differs from traditional object relations theory in:
a,. its denial of basic gender differences
b. its incorporation of biological factors into interpersonal explanations for gender diffs
c. its explanation of gender differences in terms of same-gender versus opposite-gender influences in the mother-child relationship
d. its minimization of the mother's role in determining gender differences
c. The mother's socialization practices differ, depending on the gender of her child. Specifically, girls are taught to stay connected to the mother, while boys are taught to separate. Feminist therapists have discussed how this difference contributes to gender differences in a variety of domains (e.g., achievment, moral development).
Among AA, high-context communication is manifested in:
a. the use of many words to communicate a message that would require only a few words for a Euro-American
b. the use of a few words to communicate a message that would require many words for a Euro-American
c. the use of indirect gaze when listening and speaking
d. the avoidance of eye contact when listening and speaking
b. While WEuro-Americans rely on verbal messages (low-context communication), AA and a number of other minorities make greater use of nonverbal cues. AA, e.g., tend to rely more on body language than Euro-Americans
AA tend to make ____ eye contact when speaking but ____ eye contact when listening.
direct; less
According to Maslow's theory of motivation, when a person's prepotent need is ungratified:
a. the person becomes less motivated
b. the person may "regress" to a lower-level need
c. the ungratified need continues to be a primary motivator
d. the ungratified need continues to be a primary motivator only when there is a good chance it will eventually be satisfied
c. the ungratified need continues to be the primary motivator
For a dx of Bulimia Nervosa, an individual has to exhibit which of the following:
a. purging following binge eating for at least one month
b. binge eating for at least three mos
c. lack of control over eating plus either purging or excessive exercise for at least two mos
d. binge eating and some type of inappropriate compensatory bx for at least three mos
d. binge eating and some type of inappropriate compensatory bx for at least three mos
Jerome Kagan has related the basic temperament qualify of inhibition (degree of approach or withdrawal in new situations) to:
a. prenatal development
b. intellectual capacity
c. caregiver behaviors
d. CNS reactivity
d. Infants with a high degree of bx inhibition also exhibit high CNS activity (especially in the amygdala and hypothalamus) in new situations
The inability to recognize familiar faces is refverred to as:
a. prosopagnosia
b. visual agnosia
c. optic agnosia
d. horologagnosia
a. A person with prosopagnosia cannot recognize familiar faces by sight but may be able to recognize people from other cues (e.g., voice, clothing, gait).
As described by Beck automatic thoughts involve:
a. interpreting experiences in patterned, reflexive ways
b. enduring schemas thtat have been repeatedly reinforced
c. shoulds, musts, and oughts
d. episodic memory
a. they are automatic or reflexive; they usu have an interpretive component
A patient with Alzheimer's disease would be expected to perform best on which of the following WAIS indices:
a. Perceptual Organization
b. Processing Speed
c. Working Memory
d. Verbal Comprehension
d. Verbal Comprehension - better on verbal than on performance subtests - include conceptualization, knowledge, and experience
The PTA votes to keep a certain book out of the high school library bec of its controversial nature. When students find out about the PTA's decision, many of them immediately buy the book at local bookstores. This is an illustration of:
a. deindividuation
b. door in the face
c. reactance
d. reactivity
c. reactance - the tendency to act in ways opposite of what is required or requested (esp when one feels that one's freedom is being threatened) is referred to as psychological reactance
To contruct the 68% confidence interval for an examinee's obtained test score, you would need the examinee's score and:
a. the test's mean
b. the standard deviation
c. the standard error of measurement
d. the standard error of estimate
c. To construct a 68% confidence interval, you add and subtract one standard error of measurement to and from the examinee's obtained test score.
To construct a 68^ confidence interval, you ____ and ______ one standard error of measurement to and from the examinee's ______ test score.
add; subtract; obtained
Providing therapy to a former sex partner:
a. is not directly addressed... but covered by the multiple relationships prohibition
b. is permissible only when....
c. is permissible under "unusual circumstances" when at least two years have
d. is explcitly prohibited by the Code
d. is explicitly prohibited by the Code
Bandura's social learning theory implies that, in organizational settings, a training program will be most effective when:
a. it includes frequent rewards for reaching goals
b. it targets the cognitive processes underlying successful task performance
c. trainees possess prerequisite skills before training begins
d. models are clearly reinforced for successful performance
c. Bandura strsses the importance of self-efficacy beliefs; intrinsic motivation; focusing on overt activities and behaviors; and ensuring that people have prerequisite skills
A patient with Broca's aphasia would be most likely to exhibit:
a. apathy
b. intense anxiety and deprssion
c. inappropriate giddiness
d. explosive episodes of anger and violence
b. Sometimes exhibit anxiety and depression
Thos with Wernicke's aphasia are more likely to exhbit _____ and ______.
indifference and paranoia
David Perry and his colleagues have looked at the cognitive mediators of aggression in children and have found that, in comparison to their nonaggressive peers, highly aggressive children:
a. have a higher level of self-efficacy with regard to both antisocial and prosocial behaviors
b. are likely to be less aware of the physical and emotional effects of their aggression on others
c. are more likely to predict they will receive peer approval for acting aggressively
d. are more likely to believe that aggerssion will reduce aversive tx by others
d. are more likely to believe that aggression will reduce aversive tx by others
From the perspective of object relations theory, the critical issue underlying borderline personality characteristics in children and adolescents is:
a. identity diffusion
b. narcissism
c. abandonment
d. impulsivity
c. abandonment - children and adolescentw with borderling symptoms are fixated in the separtion-individual phas of development. They have a need for separation along with an overwhelming fear of abandoment, which is manifested as "abandonment depression" (feelings of rage, helplessness, and emptiness).
A job applicant who scores below the cutoff on a selection test and is, therefore, not hired but who would have actually obtained a satisfactory job performance rating if she had been hired is best described as a:
a. true positive
a. true negative
c,. false positive
d. false negative
d. false negative
As defined in DSM, a diagnosis of Separation Anxiety Disorder requires:
a. a minimum duration of two weeks
b. an onset prior to age 18 years
c. the presence of certain characteristic somatic symptoms
d. all of the above
b. on onset prior to age 18 years
You have been seeing a client for several months and believe that the original issues that the client came to therapy for have been successfully resolved. When you bring up the topic of termination with the client, she says that she wants to continue therapy. In subsequent sessions, you and the client are unable to come up with additional treatment goals. As an ethical psychologist, your best course of actions would be to:
a. tell the client that you are ethically required to terminate therapy and reassure her that she'll be okay
b. provide a brief period of pretermination counseling and discuss the reasons why termination is appropriate
c. est a contract with the client for a maximum of three mos more of therapy
d. continue seeing the client until she feels she is ready to stop seeing you
b. provide a breif period of pretermination counseling and discuss the reasons why termination is appropriate
Dueing the course of dat analysis, a researcher more often double-checks results that seem to conflict with her hypothesis than results that confirm it. This is an example of:
a. the experimenter expectancy effect
b. demand characteristics
c. the Pygmalion Effect
d. a correspondence bias
a. the experimenter expectancy effect
When your goal is to transform an original set of tests or other variables into a set of linear combinations that account for as much of the total variability as possible with the linear combinations being uncorrelated (orthogonal), you would use which of the following multivariate techniques:
a. cluster analysis
b. discriminant analysis
c. MANOVA
d. principle components analysis
d. principal components analysis - question defined the purpose of principal components analysis, which is similar to factor analysis and involves extracting the components that explain the observed variability in a set of tests or other variables. The prinicipal components are extracted in a way so that they are orthogonal (uncorrelated) and account for successively smaller amounts of the total variability
________ is used to group people into clusters (categories).
cluster analysis
______ is used to classify people into two or more predetermined groups (e.g., occupational groups) on the basis of their scores on two or more predictors.
Discriminant analysis
_____ is a form of the analysis of variance that is used when the goal is to determine if an independent variable has a significant effect on two or more dependent variables.
manova
_____ ______ are cues in the research sit that communicate to subjects what behaviors are expected of them.
Demand characteristics
The _____ occurs when a person's expectations about another individual actually produce subtle changes in the individual's behavior so that the behavior conforms to the person's expectations.
Pygmalion Effect (self-fulfilling or Rosenthal effect)
Short-term mental health intervention is most likely to decrease the use of medical services by which of the following persons:
a. a 50yo male with a dx of Hypochondriasis
b. a 35yo famale with a dx of Major depression
c. a 17yo suicidal female who is calling a suicide hotline for the first time
d. a 65yo alcoholic who has recently become a widower
a. hypochondriac
More than one research study has found that short-term psychotherapy intervention decreases the use of medical and lab services, esp by overutilizers who have significant levels of distress. This finding hhas been referred to as:
Medical offset phenomenon
A psychologist acts as both a consultant oto the court and a fact witness for the defense in a ciminal case. This :
a. represents a clear conflict of intrest and is prohibited
b. represents a "multiple relationship" and is indirectly prohibited
c. is acceptable as long as th psychologist clarifies her roles with the court and the defense
c. is acceptable as long as the psycho clarifies her roles with the court and the defense
If your stat test has low power, this also means that:
a. there is a low probability of making a Type II error
b. there is a high probability of making a Type I error
c. you will not likely obtain statistically significant results
d. you have set the level of significance too high
c. you will not likely obtain statistically significant results
If there is low power, there's a high probability that a _____ error will be made.
Type II
What's one way to increase power?
Increase the level of significance - increasing the rejection region
You are working in a community mental health center that employs two other psychos, a social worker, and a psychiatrist. One Saturday, as you're talking to your neighbor over the backyard fence, she tells you that the wife of one of your coworkers (one of the psychos) is a close friend of hers and has told her that her husband has started to physically abuse her. As an ethical psycho, your best course of action would be:
discuss the sit with the accused coworker as soon as possible
Due to recent changes in technology, a company vice preseident realizes that many employees will need to be retrained. The first step in identifying training needs will most likely be:
a. performaing a job eval
b. conducting a needs assessment
c. identifying training objectives
d. performing a personnel audit
B. NEEDS analysis is done to determine training needs
______ are used to set wages and salries
job evaluations
All of the following tend to enhance the effectiveness of punishment as a method for eliminating a target behavior except:
a. administering the punishment on an intermittent schedule
b. administering the punishment immediately after the target behavior occurs
c. administering the punishment from the beginning at the max strength
d. giving a warning cue just prior to administering the punishment
a. the greater the intensity of punishment, the greater its effectiveness. applied consistently and when verbally clarified the relationship
Which of the following selection techniques is the best predictor of turnover:
a. interview
b. personality test
c. general mental ability test
d. biodata
d. biodata
In conflict resolution, the primary role of a mediator is to:
a. derive a workable solution that will be acceptable to all disputants
b. have disputants offer solutions and then choose the best one herself
c. help disputants consider alternative solutions to the problem
d. act as a go-between by working with each disputant individually
c. help disputants consider alternative solutions to the problem
In structural family therapy, joining depends on:
a. the motivation of family members to change
b. the permeability of the boundaries between family members
c. the therapist's ability to remain neutral
d. the therapist's ability to adapt to the family
d. the therapist's ability to adapt to the family
According to Atkinson, Morten, and Sue's Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model, the final stage of identity development is characterized by:
a. assimilating into the dominant culture
b. developing a self-identity that is consistent with one's racial/cultural background
c. adopting an identity that is independent of the minority and majority cultures
d. adopting a multicultural perspective
d. adopting a multicultural perspective
Research on Total Quality Management suggests that, when it fails, this is often because:
a. the manager didn't adapt her style to the demands of the situation
b. the employees were not given adequate training
c. the employees were not sufficiently involved in problem-solving and decision-making
d. the manager often had to "satisfice" rather than "optimize" because of limited resources
c. the employees were not sufficiently involved in problem-solving and decision-making
A dx of Undifferentiated Somatoform Disorder requires which of the following:
a. at least eight diff physical complaints
b. at least one pseudoneurological symptom
c. at least one physical complaint
d. preoccupation with physical symptoms
c. at least one physical complaint - and has persisted for at least six months
Studies using neuroimaging techniques have found that, on learning and memory tasks, older adults exhibit less activation in the left hemisphere than younger adults, which confirms that ge-related declines in memory are due largely to:
a. reduced memory capacity
b. problems in retrieval
c. probs in encoding
d. reduced motivation
c. probs in encoding
A primary target of interventions for patient in the early stages of Huntington's Disease is:
a. depression
b. disorientation
c. tremor
d. visual disturbances
a. depression
A hospitalized patient with brain injury meets Dr. Wonder in the am in his office. In the afternoon, when the patient encounters Dr. Wonder in the hospital hallway, he doesn't recognize Dr. Wonder or remember his office or their previous meeting. The patient is most likely suffering from:
a. prosopagnosia
b. apraxia
c. anterograde amnesia
d. retrograde amnesia
c. anterograde amnesia - the inability to form new memories
______ is the inability to recognize familiar faces.
Prosopagnosia
______ refers to the inability to perform purposeful movements.
Apraxia
______ is a loss of memory for information acquired before a brain injury.
REtrograde amnesia
On the verbal subtests of the WISC, a child with impaired hearing would most likely obtain the lowest score on the Digit Span subtest. On the performance subtests, the child's lowest score would most likely be on the:
a. Object Assembly subtest
b. Block Design subtest
c. Picture Arrangement subtest
d. Arithmetic subtest
c. Picture Arrangement subtest;
Hearing impaired children tend to get the highest scores on the ______ and ______ subtests on the WISC.
Object Assembly and Block Design
On the performance subtests, hearing impaired children tend to have the most difficulty with the ______ subtest.
Picture Arrangement
The Arithmetic subtest is a ______ subtest.
verbal
If the relationship between level of anxiety (the IV) and number of words recalled (DV) is nonlinear, which of the following would be most useful for statistically evaluating the relationship between the two variables:
a. ANCOVA
b. MANOVA
c. trend analysis
d. factorial analysis
c. trend analysis - useful for determining the nature of the rlationship between a quantitative IV and a DV. It will show if there is a significant linear, quadratic, cubic or quartic trand
The _____ is used to statistically remove the effects of an extraneous variable.
ANCOVA
The ____ is used to assess the effects of one or more IVs on two or more DVs.
MANOVA
A _____ is appropriate when a study has two or more independent variables.
factorial analysis or factorial ANOVA
A psychologist who is working in an isolated rural community finds that some of his clients have problems that are beyond his training and expertise. The psychologist should:
a. continue seeing the clients only if there is no other psycho available
b. use only those interventions he feels competent to use in treating the clients
c. obtain appropriate supervision or consultation by phone]
d. refuse to see the clients until he receives adequate training
c. obtain appropriate supervision or consultation by phone
Your ability to clearly remember where you were and what you were doing when you first heard about the Oklahome City bombing is attributable to the phenomenon known as flashbulb memory. In turn flashbulb memory is attributable to the activies of the :
a. RAS
b. prefrontal cortex
c. limbic system
d. occipital lobe
c. limbic system
A father is trying to work in the garden, but his son wants his attention and keeps whining and nagging. The father finally gives in and plays with the boy who stops whining. The father's bx (playing with his son) is the result of:
a. pos punishment
b. neg punishment
c. pos reinforcement
d. negative reinforcement
d. negative reinforcement - the father's play bx is being negatively reinforced
Clomipramine apparently exerts its beneficial effects on obsessive-compulsive symptoms through its actions on:
a. epinephrine
b. norepinephrine
c. dopamine
d. serotonin
d. serotonin
The tricyclic drugs block the effects of:
a. GABA in the sympathetic nervous system
b. GABA in the parasympathetic nervous system
c. ACh in the sympathetic nervous system
d. ACh in the parasympathetic nervous system
d. ACh in the parasympathetic nervous system
The ______ effects of the tricyclic drugs (dry mouth, urinary retention, blurred vision) are due to blocking of the effects of ____.
ACh
Amato and Keith's metaanalysis of the divorce outcome lit found that divorce has the strongest negative impact on children's:
a. academic achievement
b. conduct
c. social adjustment
d. self-concept
b. conduct
Patterson and his colleagues focus on tthe family in describing the origins of aggressiveness in children. jSpecifically, they relate high aggressiveness in children to:
a. attachment insecurity in infancy
b. parental permissiveness and overindulgence
c. parental rejection and lack of warmth
d. coercive exchanges between parent-child
d. coercive exchanges between parent-child
A graduate student is extremely anxious about a lecture he has to give to undergraduate students the next morning. To reduce his anxiety, he drinks two beers. According to Steele and Joseph, the student's anxiety will actually increase in this situation if he:
a. relaxes and does nothing
b. performs a simple task
c. performs a moderately demanding task
d. performs a very demanding task
a. relaxes and does nothing
Early behavioral signs of mental retardation include nonresponsiveness to contact, diminished alertness to voice and movement, and poor eye contact during feeding. In addition, prior to age five, signs of Moderate Mental REtardation include:
a. minimal capacity for functioning in sensorimotor areas
b. some slowness in learning to walk and talk
c. marked delays in motor development with little or no communication skills
d. noticeable delays in motor development
d. noticeable delays in motor development
Minimal capacity for functioning in sensorimotor areas is characteristic of____.
profound retardation
Some slowness in learning to walk and talk is characteristic of ____.
mild mental retardation
Marked delays in motor development with little or no communication skills is suggestive of:
severe mental retardation
Deficits in behavioral inhibition associated with ADHD have been linked to abnormalities in which of the following brain structures:
a. hypothalamus
b. reticular activating system
c. cingulate gyrus
d,. caudate nucleus
d. caudate nucleus
Rjoe, Holland, and Brill share in common an emphasis on the role of _____ career choice:
a. aptitude
b. personality
c. social pressure
d. vocational interests
b. personality
A low selction ratio and a moderate base rate are useful for:
a. maximizing incremental validity
b. reducing the likelihood of adverse impace
c. increasing discriminant validity
d. reducing measurement error
a. AYou want to have the terms selection ratio and base rate linked to the concept of incremental validity. A predictor is most likely to increase decision-making accuracy (have good incremental validity) when there are many applicants to choose from (a low selection ratio) and when the current technique produces a moderate number of correct decisions (moderate base rate)
______ refers to low correlations between measures that assess different traits.
Discriminant validity - used as evidence of construct validity
As defined by Salvador Minuchin, triangulation is:
a. a therapeutic technique that helps family members achieve insight
b. a structural configuration that is desirable because it reduces stress
c. a chronic boundary prob that serves a conflict-diffusing function
d. a chronic boundary disturbance involving "talking through" rather than "talking to"
c. Minuchin describes several types of triangles that all serve to reduce conflict and stress - triangulation, detouring, and stable coalition
Social loafing is most likely to occur when:
a. rewards are distributed on the basis of individual contributions to the group
b. the group's goals are ambiguous rather than specific
c. the group is highly cohesive
d. the group is very large
d. the group is very large
Recent research investigating tx for Generalized Anxiety Disorder suggests that the most effective intervention is:
a. flooding
b. systematic desensitization
c. stress inoculation
d. cognitive therapy
d. cognitive therapy
A distinction is made between children who experience peer rejection versus peer neglect. Studies comparing these two groups of children suggest that changing schools:
a. has no effect on the peer status of rejected children but may have beneficial effects on the peer status of neglected children
b. has no effect on the peer status of neglected children but may have beneficial effects on the peer status of rejected children
c. is likely to have nno effect on either one
d. is likely to have bene effects on both
a. has no effect on the peer status of rejected children but may have beneficial effects on the peer status of neglected children
Following a stroke involving the middle cerebral artery and the right (nondominant) hemisphere, a person is most likely to exhibit:
a. paralysis on the left side of his body and vision loss in his left visual field
b. paralysis on the left side of his body and global aphasia
c. paralysis on the right side of his body and visual agnosia
d. paralysis on the right side of his body and visual loss in his right visual field
a. paralysis on the left side of his body and vision loss in his left visual field
For most people, language is mediated by the _____ hemisphere so that damage to the ____ hemisphere would not cause aphasia (lang disturbances).
left; right
A research subject is given a list of unrelated words to remember. The list is taken away and the subject is engaged in a distracting task for 10 seconds before she is asked to recall the words in any order. The subject's recall will be best for:
a. words at the end of the list
b. words that in the mdidle of the list
c. words that were in the beg of the list
c. words that were in the beg of the list - when there is a brief delay.... otherwise, words at the beg and the end will be recalled the best
After being rejected by the college she most wanted to attend, a young woman decides that she didn't really want to go to that collega after all. This girl's reaction is predicted by which of the following:
a. equity theory
b. fundamental attribution bias
c. cognitive dissonance theory
d. gain/loss theory
c. cognitive dissonance theory
____ proposes that we compare our input/outcome ratio to that of others and the results of this comparison determine our level of motivation.
Equity Theory
The ______ addresses the tendency to attribute an actor's behavior to dispositional factors.
fundamental attribution bias
_______ predicts that we tend to be more attracted to people when their response to us is first negative, then positive, than when it is consistently positive.
Gain/loss theory
Adequate "floor" is especially important when a test will be used to:
a. determine if trainees have mastered basic skills
b. confirm a dx of Mental Retardation
c. assign students to advance placement classes
d. distinguish between successful and unsuccessful employees
b. confirm a dx of Mental Retardation - the test has to have enough easy items to distinguish between people with different levels of low intelligence
A researcher would use stepwise multiple regression when she want to:
a. identify the fewest number of predictors needed to account for criterion variability
b. identify the fewest number of criteria needed to accurately predict performanc3e
c. statistically remove the effects of one or more moderator variables
d. identify the optimal number of criterion groups
a. identify the fewest number of predictors needed to account for criterion variability
What are the six requirements for punishment in order to be effective?
1. applied immediately following a behavior
2. applied consistently
3. when the relationship between the punishment and the target bx is verbally clarified
4.when the individual is warned that it will occur
5. when reinforcement is offered for competing behavior
6. when all positive reinforcement for the targeted behavior is withheld
When conducting a research study, you want to ensure that you will detect a difference between the tx group and the contol group. Therefore you will:
a. decrease error variance by decreasing the magnitude of the iv
b. inc experimental variance by controlling the effects of an extraneous variable
c. inc experimental variance by increasing the magnitude of the iv
d. decrease the probability of making a Type II error (retaining a false null hypothesis by increasing beta)
Decreasing the magnitude of the iv will result in less, not greater power. If you are studying the effects of a drug on a behavior, you are less likely to detect its effects if your experimental group receives a low dosage than when it receives a higher dosage. Moreover, this response does not make sense because decreasing the magnitude of the iv does not decrease error variance.
C. Increasing the magnitude of the iv would increase experimental variance by inc the diff between the two groups. This would increase power, or the ability to detect the effects of the iv
As power increases, the probability of making a Type ___ error decreases.
increases
An increase in beta, will result in an ______ of the probability of making a ______ error.
increase; Type II
For Salvador Minuchin, psychosomatic families (those in which asthma, diabetes, or anorexia threaten the life of one child) are most likely to be characterized by which of the following:
a. frequent intense open conflicts between family members
b. weak boundaries between family members and limited opportunities for individual autonomy
c. family roles that are inflexible and stereotyped
d. marked emotional distance between the husband and wife who are both emotionally immature
b. diffuse/weak boundaries are common in psychosomatic families
Ackerman is more associated with the ______ :
importance of roles in family dysfunction
The term "emotional divorce" is a term used by:
Bowen
According to Minuchin, psychosomatic families are characterized by a consistent:
avoidance of conflict
Dr. Hire, a psycho who heads the personnel committee at a mental health facility, recommends that a psycho who has an unresolved charge of sexual harassment against him not be considered for a promotion. In terms of the guidelines of the Ethics Code, Dr. Hire:
has acted unethically by violating the explicit requirement of the Code that psychos not deny promotions on the basis of pending sexual harassment charges
Cognitive coping strategies have been used for some time to influence the experience of pain. Research on these strategies suggests that:
a. they are inefficient for most patients
b. they have positive effects for most patients with imagery strategies being most beneficial
c. they have positive effects for most patients with repetitive cognitive activies being most beneficial
d. they have positive effects for most patients with acknowwledgement of the pain being most beneficial
b. Pain has been found to be amenable to cognitive techniques, and imagery appears to be most effect.
Use of the Kuder-Richardson Formula 20:
a. is appropriate for assessing the reliability of speeded tests
b. is inappropriate for assessing the reliability of speeded tests because it produces a spuriously high reliability coefficient
c. is inappropriate for assessing the reliability of speeded tests because it produces a spuriously low reliability coefficient
b. The Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 is a method for assessing internal consistency reliability, and like other measures of internal consistency, produces a spuriously high reliability coefficient for speeded tests (a test in which differences in performance are due primarily to differences in speed of responding)
A Gestalt therapist views which of the following as a key factor in healthy human growth:
a. the presence of adequate role models
b. introjection, retroflection, and confluence
c. the drive to maintain homeostasis
d. striving for superiority
c. Homeostasis is an important concept in Gestalt therapy: People are motivated by a struggle for balance and the achievement of balance is referred to as "organismic self-regulation."
Dr. Cooper is appointed by the court to evaluate a 42yo man who is a plaintiff in a court proceeding. With regard to privilege, Dr. Cooper should be aware that:
a. the plaintiff is still the holder of the privilege and must sign a wiaver of confidentiality before any info is given to the court
b. Dr. cooper is the holder of the privilege in this situation....
c. privilege is waived in this situation but Dr. Cooper should inform the plaintiff of the limits on confidentiality
c. privilege is waived in this situation but Dr. Cooper should inform the plaintiff of the limits on confidentiality
When working with elderly clients, it is important to remember that:
a. psychotherapy, especially insight-oriented therapy, is generally ineffective
b. there is greater variability among older people than younger people on a range of characteristics
c. a therapeutic alliance is particularlyy difficult to ....
b. ther is greater variability among older people than younger people on a range of characteristics
In terms of DSM, the NOS categorization is appropriate in all of the following situations except:
a. symptoms are below the diagnostic threshold for a specific disorder
b. there is uncertainty as to whether the disorder is due to a general medical condition, is substance induced, or is primary
c. the available info is adequate only for a working diagnosis
d. there is insufficient opportunity to complete data collection but symptoms seem to fit a particular diagnostic class
c.
Whenever a mother yells at her child when he is whining, the boy stops for a short period. Over time, the mother notices that she's having to yell at her son more and more often to keep the boy from whining. The boy is controlling his mother's behavior through:
a. pos reinforcement
b. negative reinforcement
b. The women's yelling is increasing, which indicates reinforcement. And the consequence following her yelling is removed, which indicates negative reinforcement
The Taylor-Russell tables would indicate the greatest incremental validity for which of the following tests:
a. a test with an r of .60, a base rate of .20, and a selection ratio of .95
b. a test with an r of .50, a base rate of .90, and a selection ratio of .80
c. a test with an r of .50, a base rate of .45 and a selection ratio of .10
c. Of the tests described, this one has the best combination of validity coefficient, base rate, and selection ratio (the base rate is moderate and the selection ratio is low)
Incremental validity is highest when the validity coefficient is _____, the base rate is _______, and the selection ratio is _____.
high; moderate (around .50); low (just above 0)
Bipolar II Disorder entails:
a. major depressive and manic episodes
b. major deprssive and hhpomanic episodes
c. depressed mood and mania
b. major depressive and hypomanic
Acccording to Albert Bandura, modeling (observational learning):
a. teaches new behaviors
b. disinhibits and facilitates behaviors already in one's repertoire
c. provides cues as the appropriateness of a particular behavior
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
A test is administered to 200 examinees and the distribution of raw scores is normal. If the examinee's raw scores are converted to percentile ranks, the number of examinees who obtain percentile ranks between 91 and 95 will be:
a. equal to the number of examinees who obtain percentile ranks between 51 and 55
b. less than the no of examinees who obtain percentile ranks between 51 and 55
c. more than the number of examinees who obtain percentile ranks between 51 and 55
d. cannot be determined
a. equal to the no of examinees who obtain percentile ranks between 51 and 55 - the key to answering this question is knowing that the distribution of percentile ranks is always flat (rectangular) regardless of the shape of the distribution of raw schoes; i.e., scores are distributed evenly throughout the distribution.
Five percent of examinees obtained percentile ranks of 91, 92, 93, 94, and 95. and Five percent obtained percentile ranks of 51, 52, 53, 54, and 55.
The schools without failure program (SWF) encourages educators to identify the deficiencies in the education itself that produce students' school failures and then develop a plan to correct those deficiencies. This program is derived from the work of:
a. Adler
b. Jung
c. Perls
d. Glasser
d. Glasser
A research psycho designs a study that involves hospitalized schizos. Before beg the study, he obtains signed informed consents from the patients' legal guardians. The psycho has acted:
a. unethically since he breached the patients' confidentiality
b. ethically as long as the patients are allowed to withdraw from the study at any time
c. ethically as long as he has also obtained permission from the patients
c. ethically as long as he has also obtained permission from the patients
In his book, The Human Side of Enterprise, McGregor distinguished between Theory X and Theory Y. According to McGregor:
a. the beliefs that managers have about their subordinates affect how those subordinates behave
b. the choice of an effective managerial style depends on the nature of the work environment
c. the most effective manager combines elements of both Theory X and Theory Y
d. a manager's style represents a role that develops over time as the result of the quality of manager-supervisee interactions
a. the beliefs that managers have about their subordinates affect how those subordinates behave
Theory ____ managers believe that to keep subordinates from becoming apathetic or actively resistant to organizational goals, they must control or direct subordinates through the use of persuasion, punishment, and rewards.
Theory X managers
Theory ____ managers assume that subordinates are motivated to seek out responsibility and that they become apathetic and resistant only as a result of negative experiences with the organization.
Theory Y managers
The choice of an effective managerial style depends on the nature of the work environment
Contingency theory of leadership
A manager's style reprsents a role that develops over time as the result of the quality of manager-supervisee interactions
This is a premise of Dansereau's vertical dyad model of leadership
When analyzing the data collected in a research study, you would use the Scheffe or Tukey test:
a. because the data you have collected represent an interval or ratio scale of measurement
b. bec there are two or more correlated dv in the study
c. bec a factorial ANOVA yyielded a statistically significant F-ratio for the interaction between ivs
d. bec a one-way ANOVA yielded a statistically significant F-ratio and the iv has more than two levels
d. When the one-way ANOVA produces significant results, a post-hoc test is ordinarily used to pinpoint the sources of the significance
As the standard deviation of the criterion scores increases:
a. the standard error of measurement increases
b. the standard error of measurement decreases
c. the standard error of estimate increases
d. the standard error of estimate decreases
c. the standard error of estimate increases - the standard error of estimate is the one that is affected by the magnitude of the standard deviation of the criterion scores - on an abstract level, it makes sense that the chance of error will be grater, the greater the ariability of the criterion scores. Also, if you look at the formula for the standard error of estimate, you can see that increasing the standard deviation will increase the standard error
The Zeigarnik effect is most likely to occur:
a. under stressful conditions
b. under nonstressful conditions
c. in familiar circumstances
d. in unfamiliar circumstances
b. under nonstressful conditions -- the Zeigarnik effect refers to the tendency to remember interrupted or uncompleted tasks better than completed ones... most often occurs in nonstressful situations.
A manager believes her priamry responsbility is to progressively expose employees to work situations with less control in order to unleash their potential. The manger's views are most consistent with which of the following:
a. McGregor's Theory Y
b. Liker's System 1
c. Fiedler's LPC
d. Vroom and Yetton's AI model
a. McGregor's Theory Y reflects a person-oriented management style and a positive view of human nature
Liker's System 1 is similar to Mcgregor's______
Theory X aand is more task-oriented
Vroom and Yetton distinguish between several decision-making models. Model AI refers to:
leaders who make decisions themselves
For a feminist therapist, power imbalances in the therapist-client relationship:
a. are ignored
b,. are acknowledged
c. are unncessary and voidable
d. are promoted in order to facilitate change
b. are acknowledged
Research on goal-setting theory suggests that monetary incentives:
a. are irrelevant to goal achievment as long as the goals have been accepted by employees
b. are irrelevant to goal achievment as long as the goals have been self-set by employees
c. have a positive effect only if employees participate in determining the difficulty of goals
d. ahve a positive effect whether or not employees have been invovled in goal-setting.
d. have a positive effect whether or not employees have been involved in goal-setting
A researcher wants to choose a stat test that has the greatest power. This means that the researcher wants to use a test that will allow her to:
a. reject the null hypothesis and retain the alternative hypothesis
b. retain the null and reject the alternate
c. reject the null when it is false; and retain the alternate
c. reject the null when it is false and retain the alternate
Research on shiftwork suggests that:
a. all tasks, regardless of complexity, are performed more efficient and accurately on the day shift
b. simple monotonous tasks are ordinarily performed equally well on day or night shifts
c. complex mental tasks involving short-term memory may be performed better on night shifts than on day shifts
c. comples mental tasks involving short-term memory may be performed better on night shifts than on day shifts
A researcher conducts an experiment to determine if tx A is more effective than tx B, c, and D for reducing cigarette smoking. The researcher radomly assigns 200 volunteers to one of the four tx groups (A<B<C< or D). Tx outcome is assessed by comparing the mean no of cigs smoked by subjects in each group 30 days after completing their tx programs. The best stat test for analyzing data would be which of the following:
a. t-test for a single sample
b. chi-squaare test for mult samples
c. one-way ANOVE
c. one-way ANOVE - involves one iv, multiple groups, and data scaled on an interval or ratio scale
The _____ test is used for a single sample comparing an obtained sample mean to a known pop mean.
t-test
The ____ tst is used when data are reported as frequency of subjects or observations in each nominal category.
chi-square test
A ______ is used when a study involves four independent variables.
four-way ANOVA
The predictions of goal-setting theory appear to be most accurate for:
a. easy tasks and people high in need for achievment
b. easy tasks and people low in need for achievment
c. complex tasks and people high in need for achievment
a. easy tasks and people high in need for achievment
When conducting a research study to test the effects of two weight reduction programs on weight loww, you decide to match clients in terms of age, weight, and socioeconomic status before assigning them to groups. By doing this you are:
a. trying to control systematic variance
b. trying to increase experimental variance
c. trying to decrease random error
d. introdu cing a systematic bias
a. trying to control systematic variance - by matching subjects on extraneous variables, you are contorlling their effects on the dv by ensuring that the extraneous variables are equally representd in all groups. Matching is a method for contolling the effects of variables that are not of interest to the researcher but that are believed to have some systematic effect on the dv.
______ is incrased by ensuring that groups are as different as possible in terms of the iv.
experimental variance
______ is controlled by ensuring that subjects in diff groups are not exposed to diff experimental conditions.
Random error
______ controls systematic bias, it does not increase it.
Matching
Change through therapy is accompanied by stress, and the therapeutic system must be capable of dealing with it. This statement was made by:
a. Glasser
b. Bowen
c. Adler
d. Minuchin
d. For minuchin, change is often precipitated by stress.
To gain the commitment of employees to a performance target, a manager would be best advised to rely on which of the following influence tactics
a. pressure, coalition, and legitimacy
b. rational persuasion, consultation, and inspirational appearls
c. ingratiation, exchange, and personal appeals
d. legitimacy, consultation, and coalition
b. rational persuasion, consultation, and inspirational appeals
The Standards for Educational and Psychologist Testing are useful for:
a. determining how to assess the reliability and validity of a test you have just developed
b. obtaining gen guidelines for evaluating the adequacy of tests you want to use in your practice
c. determining which test to use in specific circumstances
d. all of the above.
b. obtaining general guidelines for evaluatin gthe adequacy of test you want to use in your practice