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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a cell's total hereditary endowment of DNA
packages of DNA, each strand of which represents thousands of genes
somatic cells
all body cells except reproductive (46 chromosomes)
reproductive cells (23 chromosomes)
DNA-protein complex in long thin fibers
chromatin condensing
occurs after genome is duplicated, chomosomes become densely coiled and folded
sister chromatids
each duplicated chromosome had 2 sister chromatids, which contain identical copies of the chromosome's dna molecule
chromosome waist
division of the nucleus, makes up somatic cells
division of cytoplasm
occurs in gonads: variation in cell division, how reproductive cells are formed (daughter cells have half as many chromosomes as parents)
mitotic phase (M)
shortest part of the cell cycle; includes mitosis and cytokinesis
90% of the cycle, cell grows and copies its chromosomes in preparation for cell division. divided into subphases:
G1 First Gap
cell growth
S Phase
synthesis of DNA: when chromosomes are duplicated
G2 Second Gap
cell grows more as it completes preparations for cell division
mitotic spindle
forms in the cytoplasm during prophase. consists of fibers made of microtiubules and proteins (tubulin). assembly begins in the centrosome (microtubule organizing center), centrosomes replicates during interphase, the tow move further apart during prophase and prometa as spindle microtubules grow out of them--spindle poles.
structure of proteins and specific sections of chromosomal DNA at the centromere that face in opposite directions
G2 of Interphase
microtubules extend from centrosomes in arrays called asters. chromosomes have duplicated but are not distinguishable.
chromosomes become distinguishable, nucleioli dissapear, centrosomes move away from eachother, mitotic spindles form.
nuclear envelope fragments, microtubules extend to the middle of the cell towards center of the cell and kinetochores.
centrosomes at poles, chromosomes are lined up on the metaphase plate, sister chromatids are attached to microtubules
centromeres separate, chromatid considered a chromosome, move centromere first towards poles (kinetechores shorten), which are moving further apart, two cells are complete.
nuclear envelopes form, chromatin becomes less tightly coiled. cytokinesis (cleavage furrow) ensues.
cleavage furrow (animal cells)
shallow groove in the cell surgace near the old metaphase plate
cell plate (plant cells)
vesicles from golgi move towardsthe middle of cell and produce the cell plate.
binary fission
how proks reproduce. bacterial chrom is attached to plasma mem, chrom is replicated, and copies are attached at adjacent sites. membrane grows to separate. when it has grown 2x its size, membrane grows inward.
cell cycle control system
cyclically operating set of molecules in the cell that both triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle
critical control point where stop and go ahead signals can regulate the cycle. its all up to G1 which triggers the whole thing or doesnt at all.
G0= not dividing (most cells are in this stage)
one cell goes through transformation, becomes cancer cells, does not have density inhibition, creates tumor, benign ones don't spread and can be removed, malignant ones=cancer. metastasis is when the cancer spreads, because it also doesnt need anchorage. this requires radiation etc. to treat, which can kill healthy cells.
cyclin-dependent kinases
ever present kinase must be attached to a cyclin, whose amount fluctuates, to trigger. first one was called MPF
growth factor
prtoein released by certain body cells that stimulates other cells to divide
density-dependent inhibition
crowded cells stop dividing
anchorage dependence
must be attached to substratum to divide