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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1. What is software localization?
Infusion of specific cultural context into an internationalized product
More than the translation of the user interface text
2. What is software internationalization?
Internationalization (i18n) is the creation or modification of products to facilitate use in multiple locales and languages. Software and Web i18n enables applications to support the many data encodings necessary for multilingual information processing, as well as the currency formats, calendars, input methods, and other adaptations required to meet the cultural, legal, and technical requirements of regional markets.
3. How does software localization differ from software internationalization?
• Internationalization is the adaptation of products for potential use virtually everywhere, while localization is the addition of special features for use in a specific locale.
• Subjects unique to localization include:
– Language translation
– Special support for certain languages such as East Asian languages
– Local customs
– Morality
– Local content
– Symbols
– Aesthetics
– Cultural values and social context
4. What is glocalization?
• The creation of products or services intended for the global market, but customized to suit the local culture.
• Using electronic communications technologies, such as the Internet, to provide local services on a global (or potentially global) basis. Craigslist and Meetup are examples of web applications that have glocalized their approach.
5. What is product globalization? What is content globalization?
• Product globalization: a multi-step process for creating local language versions of products and software applications. Software internationalization, software localization, and technical document translation result in user interfaces, on-line help systems, and documentation that are adapted to the cultural, linguistic, and technical requirements of specific international markets.

• Content globalization is the adaptation of Web content, interactive media, printed documents, or packaging to meet the cultural, linguistic, and business requirements of a global audience. Since dynamic content is the product of an ongoing business process, content globalization solutions address process optimization, technology integration, and content automation requirements.
6. Why do we localize software? What are the benefits?
• Reduces amount of training necessary to empower end-users to use a computer system.
• Facilitates the introduction of computer technology in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs).
• Opens the way for the development of computer systems for a country’s national, provincial and district level administration that will allow civil servants to work entirely in the local language and manage databases of local language names and data.
• Facilitates the decentralization of data at provincial and district levels. The same applies to utility companies (electricity, water, telephone), who will develop local language databases, thereby reducing costs and giving better service to citizens.
• Allows citizens to communicate through e-mail in their own language.
• Empowers local software development companies to work for the administration, the public sector and private companies.
7. What are the difficulties inherent in software localization?
• Challenging if the software not designed with localization in mind.
• Common practice to separate textual data and other environment-dependent resources from program code. Supporting a different environment, ideally, only requires change in those separate resources without code modification; greatly simplifying the task.
• Duplication of resources a maintenance nightmare. For instance, if a message displayed to the user in one of several languages is modified, all of the translated versions must be changed. Software libraries that aid this task are available, such as gettext.
• The development team needs someone who understands foreign languages and cultures and has a technical background.
• Most proprietary software only available in languages considered to be economically viable.
• Since free software can be freely modified and redistributed, it is more apt to internationalization.
8. Besides translating language, what are some other considerations in localizing the user interface?
• Data transmission + data encoding in case of special characters in a language (e.g., Japanese, Chinese)
• Text orientation (flow)
• US and most Western Countries: Left to Right
• Japan: Top to Bottom
• Israel, Arab Countries: Right to Left
• Bidirectional Script Support (BiDi)
• Acronyms and Abbreviations
• Marks and spacing vary by language
• “Double-Click” - English
• <<cliquer deux fois>> -French
• >>Dobbeltklikke<< - German
• spacing after period varies
• Calendar differences
• Date/time formats
• Numbers and currency
• Paper size, address formatting, weights and measures
• Gestures, symbols
• Colors
9. Software localization is a difficult process. What are the types of tools that can help in the process? Be able to describe the types of tools (localization software, translation memory software) and how each helps in localization.
• Specialized tools
– LocalizatioN (L10N) software
• Integrated translation environment with powerful project management features.

• Ensures easy compilation, exchange and processing of translation data.

• Full featured translation environment to localize the GUI of Microsoft Windows software.

– Translation Memory (TM) or Computer Aided Translation (CAT) Applications:
is a software program designed as an aid for human translators.
Computer-assisted translation, Computer Aided Translation or CAT is a form of translation wherein a human translator translates texts using computer software designed to support and facilitate the translation process.
10. How do data privacy standards and transborder data flow laws impact software localization?
US loose privacy laws, have to “opt out” as opposed to in Europe where you “opt in” (strict privacy laws)
In Europe if you were data mining, you would need explicit authorization
1. What are developing countries?
• Same as “less developed countries”
• The term is not precise
• Sometimes taken as a nation which is not a member of the OECD (organization for economic cooperation and development)

50 Least Developed Countries
112 Developing Countries
30 Developed Countries
2. What are Least Developed Countries and what are the three defining criteria?
• 50 countries are currently designated by the U.N. as « least developed countries » (LDCs)
• The criteria for being classified as such are:
– Low income;
– Weak human resource (composite index); Consists of health, nutrition, education, and adult literacy

– Low level of economic diversification (composite index). instability of ag. Production, % of pop displaced by natural disaster, handicap of economic smallness
3. What is the Digital Divide?
• The digital divide is the disparity in access to technology that exists across certain demographic groups (may breaks along many lines, such as education, income, ethnicity, geography, infrastructure, disability, etc.)
4. How can the Digital Divide be overcome? In addition to discussing general means, refer to the CNN video clips/website on virtual villages and cite concrete examples.
The Digital Divide can be overcome by giving poorer countries access to technology. Cell phones to the poor in the villages.

• Computers and telecommunications are now so available, so cheap, and so easy to use that a « slow » country has unprecedented opportunities to become a « fast » country within a generation or two.
5. What are the arguments for and against the value of the internet in overcoming the digital divide?
• On the one hand, it can be argued that:

– Developing countries and LDC cannot effectively be connected unless basic issues are addressed (nutrition, poverty, illiteracy, healthcare, security, etc.)

– Developing countries and LDC have a greater challenge to use / produce IT effectively, and thus have difficulty competing and become increasingly poor and isolated.
• On the other hand, it can also be argued that:

– IT offers enormous opportunities to support sustainable development and leapfrog stages of economic development (e.g., skipping intermediate stages such as copper wires and analogue telephones)
6. Describe some technologies that may be useful in overcoming the digital divide. Provide some examples where they have been used.
• Some ICT have been proposed and implemented:
– PIC – personal internet communicator – access to internet, email in a small box
– VSAT – is a 2-way satellite ground station with a dish antenna that is smaller than 3 meters
– Mobile phones – in villages they have people who sell time on cell phones in Bangladesh
– Rural computing centers for email
– Credit Cards
- Hole in the Wall (cnn virtual villages)
7. Describe the implications of the Digital Divide Vicious Circle. Give examples.
There is low international internet connectivity, so there are high charges from ISPS, which creates a low demand of services, which creates little interest from private investors. This cycle will lead to a divide where some countries never get to experience a boom of Internet service.
• In relative terms, the costs to get connected are much higher in developing countries and LDCs than in developed countries.
8. What are the most important IT-related challenges for LDCs and Developing countries? (Telecomm infrastructure, Trade Barriers, Education, Regulatory). Link this back to our e-readiness criteria.
• Telecom and IT Infrastructure:
– Despite some huge progress in the past 12 years, developing countries lag behind developed ones in terms of telephone access

• Trade barriers:
– More work is needed to lower trade barriers in the areas of services and e-commerce

– India’s success - the elimination of barriers to the import of computer hardware or software was a vital milestone on the path to explosive growth of the Indian software industry.
– Human:
– Awareness, education, know-how
– Buying power

• Regulatory infrastructure:
– Regulation of financial services and online transactions
– Taxation
– Intellectual property enforcement
1. What was the role of IT in helping CEMEX in global expansion and growth?
Satellite technology helped CEMEX communicate with its different production facilities. CEMEX launched an Executive Information System to consolidate the information that was collected from all the plants. They also created their own in-house IT company called Cemtec. Another IT system that contributed to their growth was the development of their Dynamic Synchronization of Operations local dispatch system.

The creation of CxNetworks also helped them grow as they focused on creating a network of portals in different construction markets across the globe. The CEMEX Way was another important factor contributing to their growth as it was expected to save $150 million per year. It was created to customize electronic stores for different countries and to increase employee efficiency and productivity. Expansion in e-business (supply chain & logistics --- customer 1 stop shop)
2. What factors played an important role in IT’s success in CEMEX?
Focus on people/process
Culture  innovation
Focus on furthering core business processes
Infrastructure (technological, and human [expertise])

*never complacent
*strategy of differentiation in their logistics (superior IT capabilities and customer service)
*standardized processes and put a lot of money in training
3. Is the e-business expansion of CEMEX leading them away from their core business? Why or why not? What do they need to be careful about?
The e-business expansion was leading them away from their core business, because they started to “spread themselves too thin” by expanding into too many areas. Need to be careful about expanding into too many areas and losing focus – they should concentrate and build branding in one area.
4. When we discussed globalization strategies we discussed the tension between standardization and localization of business processes. The CEMEX Way promotes standardization of CEMEX’s business processes around the world. What are the pros of this approach and what are the potential pitfalls?
The pros of CEMEX Way are that every business process will be standardized and integrated across the world. It provides for streamline data flow throughout the company. A potential pitfall is resistance to change in other parts of the world, as well as cultural and user interface changes that must be implemented in order to work smoothly.