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99 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Data published by Hans Eynsenck in 1952 challenged what?
The effectiveness of conventional psychotherapeutic interventions. He reported that 66% of patients in eclectic therapy and 44% in psychoanalytic therapy improved versus 72% of those with similar problems who did not receive therapy.
Boundaries are of interest to what type of therapy approach?
Minuchin's sturctural family therapy
Transgenerational processes are of interest to what family therapy theorist?
Exceptions are of interest to what type of therapy?
Solution-oriented therapy
When an intervention involves changing oppressive social conditions in order to alleviate the cause of a person's distress, this intervention is:
C: Alloplastic: an intervention that alters environmental conditions that contribute to or cause personal distress. Autoplastic interventions attempt to changes the individual to adapt to environmental conditions.
Your pt says he has continued to have hallucinations several months after he has stopped using the drug. He realizes that it is due to the drug. Which drug did he most likely use?
D: Mescaline, which is a type of hallucinogen
According to the DSM-IV-TR, reports of the lifetime prevalence of Bipolar I Disorder range from:
According to0 Brofenbrenner, explain the following:
Microsystem: aspects of the child's environment that affect him directly (school, home)
Mesosystem: interactions between elements of the microsystem
Exosystem: factors that indirectly influence the child (e.g., parents' workplaces and social networks)
Macrosystem: cultural values, customs, economic system, etc.
Which of the antidepressant drugs are most effective for treating an individual with a diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder with Atypical Features?
MAOIs and SSRIs. Atypical depression includes reversed vegetative symptoms (increased sleep and appetite), marked mood reactivity, phobic symptoms, and/or a sense of severe fatigue
Cortisol is a steroid secreted by the:
Adrenal cortex
Adrenal medulla
Pineal gland
A: Adrenal cortex. Steroid hormones are critical for mediating stress response, maintaining blood sugar levels, bodily fluids, and electrolytes
An organisms relative frequency of responding to one alternative corresponds to the relative frequency of reinforcement for responses to that alternative. This phenomenon is referred to as:
The matching law
Rescolar-Wagner Theory predicts taht the amount of conditioning (in CC) depends on how ________ the association between the CS and US is.
Surprising or unexpected. The more surprising the US, the more conditioning will occur.
The Premack principle is a type of positive reinforcement in which a (high/low) frequency behavior is used as the reinforcer for a (high/low) frequency behavior.
High, low
The two separate scores provided by the Mental Processing scale of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) reflect ____________ theory of intelligence.
B: Luria's information processing model of intelligence distinguishes between sequential and simultaneous processing.
Lewin's field theopy predicts that human behavior is a function of _________ and ______.
Person and their environment
Hostile masculinity and promiscuous-impersonal sex are central concepts in:
Malamuth's confluence theory
Dollard's frustration-aggression hypothesis
Plutchik and Kellerman's circumplex model
Walker's cycle of violence
A: According to Malamuth's confluence theory (formerly the interaction model), sexual aggression is the result of the convergence of two major constellations or paths--the hostile masculinity path and the promiscuous-impersonal sex path.
Studies looking at the impact of gender on reactions to crowding have found that ______ cope with crowding better in laboratory setting, and _____ cope with crowding better in residential setting.
Women, Men
The internal consistency of test items can be assessed with which of the following?
Kappa statistic
Split-half reliability
Alternate forms reliability
Coefficient of stability
B: split-half reliability
Which of the following measures inter-rater reliability?
Kappa statistic
Split-half reliability
Alternate forms reliability
Coefficient of stability
A: Kappa statistic
Which of the following provides information about the stability of a test over time?
Kappa statistic
Split-half reliability
Alternate forms reliability
Coefficient of stability
D: coefficient of stability
Which of the following provides information about the equivalence of items contained in two difference forms of the test?
C: Alternate forms reliability
For a white counselor and black client, according to Helms, a "crossed relationship" occurs when:
A: The counselor and client share similar racial attitudes about whites and blacks.
B: The counselor and client have opposing racial attitudes about whites and blacks.
C: The counselor's stage of racial identity is at least one stage more advanced than the client's stage.
D: The counselor's stage of racial identity is at least one stage less advanced than the client's stage.
B: A crossed relationship is associated with the worst outcomes.

The other incorrect choices:
A: this is a parallel relationship,
C: This is a progressive relationship
C: This is a regressive relationship
Penny Pallid is an Anglo-American teacher and Cameron is her African American student. According to Helms' interaction model, Ms. Pallid will be LEAST effective in teaching Cameron if she is in the _________ stage of racial identity development and Cameron is in the __________ stage.
Reintegration; Immersion

Helms distinguished betwen parallel (reitegration,pre-encounter), crossed (reintegration, immersion), progressive (pseudoindependent,pre-encounter, and pseudoindependent, encounter), and regressive relationships.
According to the Cross model of Nigrescence, an AA in the ______ stage begins to develop a nonstereotypic AA perspective.
One approach to distinguishing between depression and anxiety involves considering three dimensions of emotion--negative affect, positive affect, and autonomic arousal. From this perspective, compared to depression, anxiety involves:
a ________level of negative affect, a _________ level of autonomic arousal, and a _________ level of positive affect.
Anxiety involves a similar level of negative affect, but a higher level of autonomic arousal and positive affect.
On a measure that assesses the "Big Five" personality factors, which disorder is associated with a HIGH score on NEUROTICISM, a LOW score on AGREEABLENESS, and a LOW score on CONSCIENTIOUSNESS.
A: Obsessive-compulsive
B: Narcissistic
C: Schizoid
D: Antisocial
D: Antisocial
On a measure that assesses the "Big Five" personality factors, which disorder is associated with a HIGH score on NEUROTICISM, a LOW score on AGREEABLENESS, and a HIGH score on CONSCIENTIOUSNESS.
A: Obsessive-compulsive
B: Narcissistic
C: Schizoid
D: Antisocial
B: Narcissistic
On a measure that assesses the "Big Five" personality factors, which disorder is associated with a HIGH score on NEUROTICISM, a LOW score on AGREEABLENESS, and a HIGH score on CONSCIENTIOUSNESS.
A: Obsessive-compulsive
B: Narcissistic
C: Schizoid
D: Antisocial
A: Obsessive-Compulsive
On a measure that assesses the "Big Five" personality factors, which disorder is associated with a LOW score on NEUROTICISM, a HIGH score on AGREEABLENESS, and a LOW score on CONSCIENTIOUSNESS.
A: Obsessive-compulsive
B: Narcissistic
C: Schizoid
D: Antisocial
C: Schizoid--they would score high on one aspect of agreeableness (compliance) and a low score on one aspect of conscientiousness (achievement striving)
Which of the following represents a phoneme:
c: a phoneme is the smallest unit of sound in a language. There are 44 phonemes in the English language. Ing is a morpheme, which is the smallist unit of sound which conveys meaning.
Harvey's reanalysis of the 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data found that, in terms of future effects, maternal unemployment during the first three years of a child's life is most likely to have a __________ impact on the child's cognitive functioning, and _________ impact on emotional or behavioral functioning.
Harvey's reanalysis of the 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth data found that, in terms of future effects, maternal unemployment during the first three years of a child's life is most likely to have a SMALL NEGATIVE impact on the child's cognitive functioning, and NO CONSISTENT impact on emotional or behavioral functioning.
Which brain area is most affected in Korsakoff's syndrome?
Temporal lobes
Mammillary bodies
Basal ganglia
C: Mammillary bodies (and some damage to the thalamus)
According to Beck's theory of depression, in response to a negative event, a depressed person is most likely to manifest an __________ locus of control and an ___________ locus of responsibility.
external, internal (depressed person will view himself as a hapless victim of fate (control fallacy) and views it as his fault (personalization).
Zajonc's confluence model predicts that children's intellectual growth can be either enhanced or hindered by their immediate family circumstances. Specifically, Zajonc considers ______ _____ to be a critical factor in intellectual development.
Birth order (first borns are predicted to perform slightly better on academic tests than their younger siblings)
The WJ-III Tests of Cognitive Abilities is based on:
A: Spearman's notion of general intelligence
B: Luria's distinction between simultaneous and sequential processing
C: the Cattell-Horn-Carroll approach to cognitive abilities
D: Sternberg's model of "successful intelligence"
C: the WJ-III is based on Horn and Cattell's distinction between fluid and crystallized intelligence and Carroll's three-stratum theory, which distinguishes between general intellectual ability (stratum III), eight general cognitive factors (stratum II) and a number of specific factors that are grouped under the general factors (stratum I)
Which of the following individuals has proposed that organizational culture acts, at least in part, as a defense mechanism that helps organizational members avoid uncertainty and anxiety:
Herbert Simon
Edgar Stein
Leon Festinger
Geert Hofstede
Edgar Stein
What three pieces of information are needed to evaluate a new selection test using the Taylor-Russell tables?
base rate, selection ration, validity coefficient
In addition to identifying "bounded rationality" as an impediment to rational decision-making, Herbert Simon is known for his work on:
Artifical intelligence: he believed that there are two main goals in using and studying computers: 1. to augment human intelligence, and 2. to understand how humans think
According to __________'s "consistency paradox", while most people view behavior as being relatively stable over different situations, the empirical research has found it to be quite variable.
Walter Mischel
In a research study investigating the possible genetic transmission of ADHD, the "proband" is:
The individual who has received the diagnosis of ADHD (the index case).
In terms of item response theory, the slope (steepness) of the item response curve indicates an item's:
A: Difficulty
B: Discriminability
C: Reliability
D: Validity
B: The steeper the slope of the item response curve, the better its ability to discriminate between those who are high and low on the characteristic being measured.

The position of the curve indicates its difficulty level.
Describe the use of exceptions in solution-focused therapy.
Solution-focused therapists use exceptions to help identify solutions to a client's problems. An exception is a time when the problem did not exist or existed in a less intense form. For example, the therapist might ask the couple if they can remember a time when they were able to talk for an extended period of time without arguing.
Motivational interviewing combines the transtheoretical model of change with:
Psychoanalytic concepts
Reality Therapy
A behavioral approach
A client-centered approach
D: a client centered approach (i.e., it emphasizes the importance of empathy)
The first use of meta-analysis in the area of psychology is attributed to:
Smith and Glass
Horn and Cattell
C: Smith and Glass
What is a factor that distinguishes between OCPD and OCD?
OCPD is characterized by a preoccuption with orderliness, perfectionism, and control. The diagnosis does not require obsessions and/or compulsions.
About ________% of mothers experience postpartum major depression and about _______% of new mothers experience postpartum blues, a less severe condition that involves mood swings and sleep disturbances.
10-15%, 50-80%
About ____% of people with Somatization disorders have a personality disorder.
According to Piaget, which of the following is a necessary prerequisite for the development of reversibility?
hypothetico-deductive reasoning
C: symbolism
Research investigating the impact of parenting style on the academic achievement of children and adolescents suggests that the effects are modified by:
the offspring's temperament
the family's ethnicity or culture
the level of parental education
neither temperament, ethnicity, or parental education
B: the family's ethnicity or culture--the authoritative parenting style is beneficial for the school success of white and Hispanic students, but for Asian-American and African-American students, this style does not predict school achievement.
According to Seligman, when a person with an optimistic attribution style does poorly on an exam in a class he ordinarily does well in, that person will most likely say:
I didn't study hard enough
I was unlucky
The teacher gave a very hard test this time
The teacher always grades on a curve.
C: Optimistic people tend to make external, specific, and temporary attributions for negative events. According to Seligman's theory of learned optimism, the attributions of optimistic people are just the opposite of those made by depressed and other pessimistic people.
Tiedman and O'Hara's model of career development emphasizes which of the following:
Basic interests
basic instinctual needs
Personal identity
Locus of control
Personal Identity: the achievement of a personal vocational identity involves a balancing integration (being part of a career field) with differentiation (retaining individuality and uniqueness)
Would Glasser agree with this statement, "If a client wants to change how she feels, she has to make more effective acting and thinking choices. For instance, if a client is lonely, she should decide to find a friend."
Yes, Glasser emphasizes individual choice, especially related to acting and thinking, which are directly under a person's control.
In terms of treatment outcome, which ethnic/cultural group consistently has the best outcomes?
Hispanic-Americans, followed by Anglos, Asians, and African Americans
Describe Stages .5-3 of AIDS dementia complex
.5: minimal or equivocal signs of impairment and no imp. in ADLs
1: mild, evidence of functional, intellectual, or motor impairment; can do most ADLs and walk without assistance.
2: moderate, cannot work or perform demanding ADLs, may require assistance while walking
S: severe, significant intellectual impairment and cannot walk without assistance
According to Gyorgy Gergely, visual feature representation is a necessary precondition for:
Gender identity development
Mirror self-recognition
Social referencing
B: Mirror self-recognition
As children move toward the end of middle childhood, relationships between siblings become more:
B: egalitarian and lower in intensity and conflict
Petit mal seizures have their origin in what brain region?
Thalamus (due to an overabundance of GABA receptors in the thalamus)
What is the purpose of survey feedback as a method of organizational development?
Survey feedback is used to collect data about strengths and weaknesses of an organization from employees of all levels, providing employees with survey results, and helping employees use the data to identify ways to overcome current problems. It is based on the premise that employees need to understand an organization's strengths and weaknesses
In the 1950s, researchers at Ohio State University developed an influential theory of leadership that focuses on the leader's:
Personality traits
Attitudes toward subordinates
B: behaviors exhibited by supervisors and other organizational leaders. Results indicated that leaders can be described in terms of two behavioral dimensions: consideration and initiating structure
In Ott's study, ___% of patients with diabetes developed vascular dementia and ___% developed Alzheimer's dementia.
14%, 70%
The Ferber method adopts a ____ approach to getting babies to sleep:
therapeutic touch
cold turkey
A: progressive waiting
Craik and Lockhart's level of processing model of memory implies that ________ ________ is more effective than maintenance rehearsal.
Elaborative rehearsal because it involves encoding material semantically, and the semantic level of processing is the deepest level of processing and produces the best recall.
A family therapist whose approach incorporates social learning theory is likely to combine behavioral techniques with ____________________.
Enhacing problem-solving and communication skills
From the perspective of Beck's cognitive therapy, the information processing of suicidal individuals is characterized by a high degree of hopelessness and _____________ thinking.
What factors are associated with positive outcome for children at risk for antisocial behavior?
Good relationship with a caretaker, social responsivity, and IQ
The authors of DSM-IV attempted to overcome the difficulties associated with a categorical diagnostic classification system by including __________ criteria sets for some disorders.
Polythetic criteria sets (the presence of a subset of items from a longer list)
Coefficient alpha is most associated with which:
internal validity
the probability of making a Type I error
internal consistency
incremental validity
C: internal consistency
Without treatment, a Major Depressive episode typically last __________ months
3-6 months, about 50% of people experiencing their first depressive episode will fully recover in 6 months with no further symptoms. 40% will experience recurrent episodes.
Apraxia is associated with damage to the _______.
parietal lobe
Ataxia, dysarthria, and nystagmus are associated with damage to the ___________.
Who is associated with the belief in a natural tendency toward self-actualization?
Carl Rogers
Erik Erikson
BF Skinner
Aaron Beck
A: Carl Rogers
Who would agree that maladjustment is specific to the culture, the time, the social class, and the situation?
Carl Rogers
Erik Erikson
BF Skinner
Aaron Beck
BF SKinner: he viewed behavior as being determined by the consequences that have followed it. Therefore, behavior is likely to vary from culture to culture, situation to situation, etc.
Who would say that people are propelled by psychological and social forces and will develop in healthy ways as long as they are procided with appropriate social experiences?
Carl Rogers
Erik Erikson
BF Skinner
Aaron Beck
Erik Erikson: he outlines 6 stages of psychosocial development and thus emphsized the role of social factors in development.
Who is associated with reciprocal determinism?
Carl Rogers
Erik Erikson
BF Skinner
Aaron Beck
Which of the following disorders is known to be caused by brain lesions:
Myasthenia gravis
Cerebral palsy
Cystic fibrosis
Parkinson's disease
B: cerebral palsy--describes a number of motor disorders resulting from brain lesions that cause persistent, nonprogressive motor dysfunction. The causes can be prenatal or postnatal
Which of the following is characterized by muscle rigidity, hyperthermia, stupor?
Tricyclic overdose
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
5-HT toxicity
Lithium toxicity
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (as well as painful joints, mutism, tachycardia, urinary retention)
Which of the following is characterized by nausea and vomiting, loss of coordination, and seizures?
Tricyclic overdose
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
5-HT toxicity
Lithium toxicity
Lithium toxicity
Which of the following is characterized by ataxia, cardiac arrhythmia, and delirium?
Tricyclic overdose
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
5-HT toxicity
Lithium toxicity
Tricyclic overdose
Which of the following is characterized by headache, tremor, confusion?
Tricyclic overdose
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
5-HT toxicity
Lithium toxicity
5-HT toxicity syndrome
The best treatment for an elderly client exhibiting symptoms of paranoia is what?
A supportive environment and low doses of phenothiazines (a major tranquilizer)
Problem drug use among teens is most linked with:
Peer pressure
Lack of information/eduation
Early experimentation with drugs
C: Alienation
Research on sex differences in leadership style suggests that actual differences between male and female leaders are far less than what might be expected. The research has also shown that males and females are evaluated similarly by group members when they are peceived to have a ___________ leadership style, but males are evaluated more favorably than females when they are perceived to have a ________________ leadership style.
Participatory, autocratic
The best conclusion that can be drawn about the effects of examiner race on the cognitive test performance of AA and other minority group children is that?
White examiners may have a negative effect on test performance of AA and other minority-group children in some situations.
True or false, Black families emphasize traditional sex-role stereotypes.
False, they de-emphasize traditional sex-role stereotypes.
Overtraining is associated with ______________ motivation and performance.
An advocate of client-centered therapy would most likely view diagnosis as?
unnecessary and possibly detrimental because it places the therapist in a superior, authoritarian role that can impede the development of autonomy and self-actualization in the client.
From the Freudian perspective, ___________ helps the client uncover unconscious material and gain insight into it.
Research on working women suggests that combining work and family roles is most associated with ________ self-esteem.
During Piaget's __________ stage, children's moral judgments are based on the seriousness and consequences of the act.
Heteronomous stage
What are the three stages of Piaget's moral development?
Moral Realism
Moral relativism
Which of the 3 stages of Piaget's moral development is most consistent with making moral judgements based on the intentions behind the act?
Moral Realism
Moral Relativism
Moral relativism
Which treatment entails a combination of exposure to a feared stimulus coupled with psychodynamic interpretation of the fear?
Implosive Therapy
Covert sensitization
B: Implosive therapy
Which is an operant technique usually classified as a type of punishment?
Implosive Therapy
Covert sensitization
A: overcorrection
Which is a type of aversive conditionign that is conducted in imagination?
Implosive Therapy
Covert sensitization
C: covert sensitization
Which is a cognitive technique used to help clients learn to cope with current and future problems?
Implosive Therapy
Covert sensitization
D: Problem Solving Therapy
Is hypnosis an effective treatment for OCD?
Hypnosis may have clinical utility in the treatment of OCD, especially when it is combined with other behavioral techniques.
At _____ months of age, infants begin to search for a hidden object but reach for the object in the last place they found it even when they have seen the object moved to another location.
8-12 months (this is the "A not B error").
In the context of the Rorschach test ______ indicates congruence between the response and reality.
positive form quality
If you receive a subpoena from the court requesting that you supply it with copies of records from a former client who has been charged with a crime and is using the insanity as a defense, you should:
Turn over the records unless the client changes his plea because the insanity defense revokes the individual's privilege.