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148 Cards in this Set

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Ulfius
4th Century
Bishop of Gothia
Arian missionary to the Goths.
Translated bible form Greek into Gothic.
4th Century
Bishop of Gothia
Ulfius
Arian missionary to the Goths.
Ulfius
Translated bible form Greek into Gothic.
Ulfius
John Chrysostom
4th/5th century preacher of Antioch and Constantinople
Calvin lauded him as the best exegete.
His interpretation of scripture was of the Antiochene (literal)method - using the natural sense of the text (vs. Alexandrian school which looked for the deeper meaning.)
Pastor who gave equal attention to people and preaching.
4th/5th century preacher of Antioch and Constantinople
John Chrysostom
Calvin lauded him as the best exegete.
John Chrysostom
His interpretation of scripture was of the Antiochene (literal)method - using the natural sense of the text (vs. Alexandrian school which looked for the deeper meaning.)
John Chrysostom
Pastor who gave equal attention to people and preaching.
John Chrysostom
Benedict of Nursia
Greatest Western Monastic
Wrote most famous Monastic Rule in 540
Greatest Western Monastic
Benedict of Nursia
Wrote most famous Monastic Rule in 540
Benedict of Nursia
Requirements of the Benedictine Rule
Prayer - liturgy of hours "sanctification of time"; Study - especially scripture and the church fathers "spiritual reading"; and Work - shared labor
Prayer, Study, and Work
Requirements of the Benedictine Rule
Describe the beginnings of Monasticism
Monasticism was largely a response to what some saw as the increasing worldliness of the church. Also, Especially after Constantine and the end of martyrdom, Christians looked for a way to express their deep commitment to Christ.
Anthony
Eastern Monastic of the 3/4th cent. who responded litteraly to the rich young ruler. Eastern Christians point to him as the founder of Monasticism.
270 (imp. date) - Anthony retreats to desert.
Eastern Monastic of the 3/4th cent. who responded litteraly to the rich young ruler.
Anthony
Eastern Christians point to him as the founder of Monasticism.
Anthony
270 (imp. date) - _________ retreats to desert.
Anthony
Pachomius
3/4th cent. Eastern monk who promoted cenobitism or "common life"
cenebotism
"common life" monasticism
3/4th cent. Eastern monk who promoted cenobitism or "common life"
Pachomius
Basil of Cappadocia
Eastern monk who wrote famous Rule
Eastern monk who wrote famous Rule
Basil of Cappadocia
John Cassian
Eastern monk who later introduced Basil's rule to the West.
Eastern monk who later introduced Basil's rule to the West.
John Cassian
Four famous Eastern monastics
Anthony, Pachomius, Basil of Cappadocia, and John Cassian
Two famous Western monastics
Martin of Tours and Benedict
Martin of Tours
Pioneer of Western Monasticism; soldier who split cloak with begger
Pioneer of Western Monasticism
Martin of Tours
Soldier who split cloak with begger
Martin of Tours
Donatism
African separatist chuch in the 4th century.
A reaction,as monasticism was a reaction, to what some saw as compromise in the Imperial Church. Debate revolved around "What is the nature of the true chuch?" Problem arose when the church debated how to treat the "tratitoris" - those who had handed over scripture during the Diocletian persecution. Donatis, a rival bishop of Carthage, insisted on a "pure" church. Augustine inherited this controversy when he was ordained Bishop of Hippo.
African separatist chuch in the 4th century.
Donatism
A reaction,as monasticism was a reaction, to what some saw as compromise in the Imperial Church.
Donatism
Debate revolved around "What is the nature of the true chuch?"
Donatism
Problem arose when the church debated how to treat the "traditoris" - those who had handed over scripture during the Diocletian persecution.
Donatism
Augustine inherited this controversy when he was ordained Bishop of Hippo.
Donatism
___________a rival bishop of Carthage, insisted on a "pure" church in this African separatist movement of the ______ century.
Donatis/Donatism/4th
Most churches in North Africa had become ___________ by Augustine's time.
Donatist
Augustine's response to Donatism.
1. The visible church is not perfect - it is a "pilgrim" church.
2. Unity in the church must be maintained.
3. For those who have left the chuch, we must compel them to come in (began a long history of forced conversions.)
Discuss Augustine's City of God In it's historical setting.
Sack of Rome 410
Augustine died 430
Eusibius' "Official Theology" of God's protection of Rome was clashing with reality and people had two responses: 1. Pagans believed gods vengeful because of Rome's Christianity. 2. Christians believed God punishing Rome for tolerating paganism. Augustine said God didn't promise peace & prosperity. He interpreted history saying that God created both cities and that the church, not Rome, is the city of God on earth. Augustine said that the two cities are interwoven and intermixed until the last judgement.
Sack of Rome
410
Augustine died
430
What was the significance of the Council of Orange?
529 - 100 years after Augustine's death.
Augustinianism was "almost" fully embraced in the Western church - still left the door open for compromise of semi-pelagianism: "God saves us, but He doesn't do it without our help."
Council at which Western church embraced (almost) Augustinian orthodoxy, 100 years after his death.
Council of Orange, 529
Outline Augustine's position in the controversy with Pelagius.
1. Adam was created perfect but lost the freedom of his will through sin.
2. We are born sinners because we are Adam's children.
3. We are unable and unwilling to do good.
4. God's grace is necessary.
5. God's grace is given freely to some, through His mercy.
6. Though growth in grace is possible, perfection is only attained in heaven.
Describe Augustine's "Confessions"
A prayer, meant to be overheard.
Theme: Our need for God's grace.
Books 1-9 Autobiographical
Books 10-13 Memory, Time/Eternity, Creation, Genesis.
A prayer, meant to be overheard.
Augustine's "Confessions"
Theme: Our need for God's grace.
Augustine's "Confessions"
Sketch Augustine's life
Born mid 4th c into latinized N. African family.
Mother Monica: Berber/Persistant in prayer: converted husband and mother-in-law.
Childhood: Augustine said he was a sinner even in his infanthood.
Youth: sought pleasure and truth in himself and found only misery and error.
The search as a young man: Philosophy (Cicero); Manicheism (Persian gnosticism); skepticism; Neo-Platonism: saw glimpses of peace but not how to get there.
Trained for a career in rhetoric: "vendor of words." Traveled to Rome/Milan. Met Ambrose - went to hear his rhetoric but eventually started listening to what he was preaching. Read Athanasius' book "Life of St. Anthony" Conversion: 386, in the garden: take and read. Baptized by Ambrose, ordained (with tears) made bishop of Hippo in late 4th century. Spent the rest of his life preaching, counseling, governing, writing. Died in 430.
Augustine born
Mid 4th century
Augustine died
430
Augustine's mother
Monica
Augustine's search:
Philosophy - Cicero
Minicheism - Eastern mystical religion (gnostic)
Skepticism
Neoplatonism - glimpses of peace but not how to get there
Augustine converted
386 in the garden
People important in Augustine's conversion
Ambrose - preaching
Athanasius - "Life of St. Anthony"
Who was Pelagius?
Christiian moralist, active in Rome in the late 4th/early 5th centuries. Well educated Briton, trained in law.
What did Pelagius teach?
Taught Christian perfection (one writer has called it "Justification by decency.") Said we can life good lives if we just set our minds to it.
Believed:
1) we are born neutral
2) we have the possibility to do good or bad
3) goodness and perfection are attainable
Christiian moralist, active in Rome in the late 4th/early 5th centuries.
Pelagius
Well educated Briton, trained in law.
Pelagius
Justification by decency
Pelagianism
Said we can life good lives if we just set our minds to it
Pelagianism
we are born neutral
Pelagianism
we have the possibility to do good or bad
Pelagianism
We can live good lives if we just set our mind to it.
Pelagianism
Who was Jerome?
4th/5th century scholar/monk.
Knew Latin, Greek, and Hebrew (Hebrew was unusual for the time.)
4th/5th century scholar/monk.
Jerome
Knew Latin, Greek, and Hebrew (Hebrew was unusual for the time.)
Jerome
What was Jerome's significance?
1. Translated the bible into Latin (not the first, but the best) - completed in 405
2. Wrote bible commentaries
3. Elevated view of ceibacy
Vulgate completed
405
Elevation of celibacy
Jerome
Jerome's life
4th/5th cent.
Who were the Great Cappadocians?
4th century Theologians from the Golden Age of the Greek Orthodox church
1. Basil of Caesarea
2. Gregory of Nyssa (Basil's brother)
3. Gregory of Nazianzus (Friend)
Why were the Great Capadocians important?
Important themes in Capadocian's writings: 1. Mystery of the Godhead
2. Diety of the Holy Spirit
3. Humanity of Christ
4. Care for the needy
What was the Athanasian creed?
A summary of the orthodox doctrine of the Trinity from the first five centuries.
Not by Athenasius.
Not a creed.
Probably composed in the 5th or 6th century.
Rather negative in tone: begins with warnings against apostacy and heresy.
A summary of the orthodox doctrine of the Trinity from the first five centuries.
Athanasian creed
What is a monophysite?
One who believes Christ has one nature. Eutychians are monophysites.
One who believes Christ has one nature.
Monophysite
Two examples of churches which held monophysite beliefs.
Coptic Orthodox and syrian Orthodox.
What was the result of the council of Chalcedon?
A. One person: union of two natures was BASIC and SUBSTANTIAL ("HYPOSTATIC")
B. Two natures: PERFECT and COMPLETE (against Apollinarianism); without CONFUSION or CONVERSION (against Eutychianism); without DIVISION or SEPARATION (against Nestorianism).
Chalcedon didn't explain how union of two natures works, but denounced wrong views. Specifically condemned Eutychianism.
After Chalcedon
Christiandom divided into two main camps: 1) Chalcedonians (one person in two natures) and Monophysites (one person in one nature.) The Councils of Constantinople II (533) and Constantinople III (680) later reaffirmed Chalcedonian orthodoxy.
Constantinople II date
533
Constantinople III date
680
Identify the major participants at the council of Chalcedon
Leo I
Dioscurus
Eutyches
Largest council yet: over 500 bishops, mostly from the east because the West was busy with the barbarians.
Date of Council of Chalcedon
451
451
Date of Council of Chalcedon
Constantinople I
381
2nd Ecumenical Concil
Called by Theodosius
Attended by Greggory of Nyssa, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Meletius. Condemned Appoliarianism.
Main issue: the diety of the H.S. (added "H.S. Lord and giver of life..." etc. to Nicene creed. ) Our commonly used Nicene creed is that affirmed at Constantinople.
Condemned Appoliarianism.
Constantinople I in 381
Called by Theodosius
Constantinople I in 381
381
Constantinople I, called by Theodosius.
Attended by Greggory of Nyssa, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Meletius.
Constantinople I, in 381
Main issue: the diety of the H.S.
Constantinople I 381
Our commonly used Nicene creed is that affirmed at this council.
Constantinople I 381
Ended Trinitarian controversy.
Constantinople I 381
Council of Ephesus
431
3rd ecumenical council
called by Theodosius II
Key Players: Cyril/Nestorius
Dealt with Nestorian controversy
Nicene orthodoxy reaffirmed.
Theotakas ("God bearer") approved as title for Mary.
Pelagianism denounced.
431
Council of Ephesus
3rd ecumenical council
Council of Ephesus 431
called by Theodosius II
Council of Ephesus 431
Dealt with Nestorian controversy
Council of Ephesus 431
Theotakas ("God bearer") approved as title for Mary.
Council of Ephesus 431
Pelagianism denounced.
Council of Ephesus 431
Key Players: Cyril/Nestorius
Council of Ephesus 431
Theotakas
"God bearer" - approved by council of Ephesus/3rd ecumenical council/431 - opposed by Nestorius who prefered "christotakas"
christotakas
"Christ bearer" term prefered by Nestorius to theotakis.
List the seven ecumenical councils and their dates
1. Nicea 325
2. Constantinople I 381
3. Ephesus 431
4. Chalcedon 451
5. Constantinople II 553
6. Constantinople III 680-681
7. Nicea II 787
sketch the life of Athanasius.
Born late 3rd to wealthy Egyptian parents. Called "The Black Dwarf"
Greek education at catechetical school of Alexandria.
Influenced by his bishop: Alexander - was his secretary at Nicea in 325.
Succeeded Alexander as Bishop of Alexandria at age 33
Exiled five times
Born late 3rd to wealthy Egyptian parents.
Athanasius
Called "The Black Dwarf"
Athanasius
Influenced by his bishop: Alexander - was his secretary at Nicea in 325.
Athanasius
Bishop of Alexandria at age 33
Athanasius
Exiled five times
Athanasius
Summarize Athanasius' contributions to the church
1. Closing of the canon of scripture
2. promotion of monasticism
3. Doctrine of the full diety of Christ (Book: "On the Incarnation Of The Word") - continued struggle against Arius and defended biblical Christology.
Also wrote Life of St. Anthony, which influenced Augustine.
Two books by Athanasius
"On the Incarnation Of The Word" and "Life of Saint Anthony"
Closed the canon of scripture
Athanasius
Promoted of monasticism
Athanasius
Doctrine of the full diety of Christ
Athanasius
"On the Incarnation Of The Word" and "Life of Saint Anthony"
by Athanasius
What was the result of the council of Nicaea
When council heard Eusebius of Nicomedia express his Arian views, they saw how dangerous and heretical they were.
The council decided it was necessary to use a word not found in scripture: "homoousios" (of one/same substance) in order to control people's understanding of scriptural language.
Council made formal statement in which Arianism is clearly excluded. A revised version of this creed is today's Nicene Creed.
Did not end controversy - Athanasius took over the fight for orthodox biblical Christology and eventually triumphed in the fourth century.
When this council heard Eusebius of Nicomedia express his Arian views, they saw how dangerous and heretical they were.
Nicaea 325
This council decided it was necessary to use a word not found in scripture: "homoousios" (of one/same substance) in order to control people's understanding of scriptural language.
Nicaea 325
Council made formal statement in which Arianism is clearly excluded.
Nicaea 325
This council did not end controversy over the eternality of Christ - Athanasius took over the fight for orthodox biblical Christology and eventually triumphed in the fourth century.
Nicaea 325
Homoousios vs. Homoiusios
of one substance vs. of similar substance
Homoiusios
Of similar substance
Identify the major participants at the council of Nicea
Aprox. 300 church fathers, mostly from the Greek speaking East.
Arius*, Eusebius of Nicomedia, Alexander of Alexandria, Eusebius of Caeserea, Athanasius*
(*these couldn't speak because not bishops)
Also present were a small group of those who believed in Patripassionism, who opposed Arius.
The vast majority of those present didn't belong to any one group and simply wanted compromise.
Leader of the Arians at Nicaea
Eusebius of Nicomedia
Leader of the Orthodox view at Nicaea
Alexander of Alexandria
Attended by aprox. 300 church fathers, mostly from the Greek speaking East.
Council of Nicaea 325
Key players: Arius*, Eusebius of Nicomedia, Alexander of Alexandria, Eusebius of Caeserea, Athanasius*
(*these couldn't speak because not bishops)
Council of Nicaea 325
Also present were a small group of those who believed in Patripassionism.
Council of Nicaea 325
The vast majority of those present didn't belong to any one group and simply wanted compromise.
Council of Nicaea 325
Describe the issue that necessitated the Council of Nicaea.
Nicaea was the first ecumenical council.
Called by Constantine in 325 because of the debate over how to express the doctrine of Christ.
Arianism - heresy that denied the eternality of Christ.
Arius was presbyter of Alexandria who had a dispute with his biship, Alexander of Alexandria.
Alexander said "At the same time the Father, at the same time the Son."
Arius said "There was a time when He was not." and "If God & Christ were equal, than Christ should be called God's brother."
Arius believed that Christ was "Tertium Quid" - A third thing: Christ is neither God nor man.
The first ecumenical council.
Council of Nicaea 325
Council called by Constantine
Council of Nicaea 325
Council called because of the debate over how to express the doctrine of Christ.
Council of Nicaea 325
Council called because of Arianism - heresy that denied the eternality of Christ.
Council of Nicaea 325
Alexander's statement of the eternality of Christ
"At the same time the Father, at the same time the Son." - at Nicaea 325
Arian's statements about the noneternal nature of Christ.
"There was a time when He was not." and "If God & Christ were equal, than Christ should be called God's brother." - at Nicaea 325
Arius believe that Christ was:
"Tertium Quid" - A third thing: Christ is neither God nor man.
Discuss the conversion and significance of Constantine
Lived 3rd/4th cent.
Appears to have been worshipper of Sol: the unconquered Son/Apollo
Triumphed at Milvan Bridge in 312 after seeing emblem of labarum and hearing "In this sign you will conquer." in a dream.
Converted to Christianity after Milvan Bridge.
313 Edict of Milan: full legal tolerance of Christianity. Stopped persecution of Christians - though Galarius' 311 edict was actually more important. Returned Christian's property/exempted clergy from civil obligations/made sabbath more of a holiday/built great basillicas and gave gifts to churches.
Eventually defeated Licinius (324) to control whole empire.
Called Council of Nicaea in 325 to deal with the Arian controversy.
Baptized in 337 - same year he died.
Perhaps as many as half the people in the Roman Empire became Christians during Constantine's reign.
Sign Constantine saw in a dream
Labarum
Constantine's battle at which he was converted
Milvan Bridge 312
313
Edict of Milan
Edict of Milan
313 full legal tolerance of Christianity. Stopped persecution of Christians - though Galarius' 311 edict was actually more important.
324
Year Constantine defeated Licinius to control whole empire.
Things Constantine did for church after Edict of Milan
Returned Christian's property/exempted clergy from civil obligations/made sabbath more of a holiday/built great basillicas and gave gifts to churches.
Baptized in 337 - same year he died.
Constantine
Constantine died in this year
337