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126 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
digital native
a person who has grown up with digital technology such as computers, the Internet, mobile phones and MP3
product
something that has been made to be sold; commonly it is produced by an industrial process
service
the act of dealing with a customer to provide help or assistance, such as taking an order or providing transportation
information technology
any computer-based tool used to create, manage and disperse information
computer
is an electronic machine or device that can be programmed to perform different tasks
hardware
all of the equipment attached to a computer including the computer itself
input devices
used to allow the user to enter data or instructions into the computer. Common examples are the mouse, keyboard, microphone and scanners.
Output devices
convert information and data inside the computer into a format that is accessible to the user. Common examples include a computer screen or monitor, printers and speakers.
Storage devices
used to hold data and instructions for future use. HArd disks, USB drives, CDs, DVDS
Communications devices
allow a computer to send data and information to the other computers and to receive data and information from other computers. Modems, routers, USB wireless adapters, cables and network interface cards
system unit
the case or container that holds the electronic components, like the CPU, that make up the computer
software
set of instructions, or programs, that tell the computer what to do
system software
provides basic instructions so that the equipment knows how to operate and work together
applications software
written to perform specific business tasks
information processing cycle
Data comes into the processor through a variety of input devices, following the instructions in the software program, the processor performs the required steps to produce the desire output. The results of the software program can be sent to a variety of output devices, as well as to a variety of storage devices.
information system includes:
hardware, software, networks, people, procedures, and data necessary to accomplish the task
knowledge worker
a person who is involved in the creation, distribution and application of information
systems analysts
analyze and design information systems to solve business problems. Works with groups of users and other IT specialists to determine problem and devise solution
software developer/ application programmers
take the specifications for an information system, which were prepared by the analyst, and develop the programming logic and code to build the actual system
web developers
analyze, design, and create internet-based systems, including e-commerce systems
database administrators
design, build and maintain corporate databases. This includes ensuring data security and privacy, along with integrity of all data
Network engineers
design, build, and maintain the information technology networks used by a business.
computer center operators
schedule and monitor different computer program operations, perform system backups, diagnose and fix hardware problems
quality assurance analysts/testers
develop and implement software test plans to ensure that systems meet the desired specifications, perform as needed, and are free of defects
technical trainers
develop training programs including specific training lessons and materials.
information security specialists
perform risk assessments and security audits. Based on results they create security policies and procedures and make recommendations for enhancing security
computer operations managers
responsible for ensuring that all the computer systems within an organization are functioning as needed
project managers
responsible for allocating resources (money, people, time and equipment) to various IT projects. Monitor projects to ensure they stay on schedule, on budget and meet the needs of client
Director of Information Technology
responsible for managing the day-to-day information technology operations within an organization. Serve as liaison between the nontechnical departments and the IT department
Chief Information Officers (CIO)
are responsible for planning and overseeing the overall information technology strategy. Provide leadership to all IT staff and make recommendations to other senior managers regarding technology initiatives
hardware
computer and peripheral equipment for input, output, storage
software
programs that tell the computer equipment what to do
data
inputs into the computer system. Many systems will store the data in a database, which is an organized collection of data
people
users and information systems professionals
procedures
policies within a company that form the basis for the logic in the programs
networks
specialized hardware and software that allows different computers to connect with each other to share data, software and other hardware resources
functions an information system performs
1. Capture input
2. Process- transform input into output
3. Convey output
4. Collect feedback- data about the performances of the system
5. Control- monitoring, analyzing, and making the necessary adjustments
information
data that has been organized, manipulated, or processed
data
raw facts that are collected and stored
internal information
produced by the company through the normal course of business operations,
external information
comes from outside an organization- interest rates, economic indicators of projected growth, employment projections
information must be:
1. Accurate
2. Complete
3. Economical
4. Relevant
5. Timely
6. Verifiable
7. Accessible
non-management employees
Need information to make quick, structure decisions to perform their job
examples: office workers, production, and sales clerks
level 1 of the pyramid (the base)
Operational management
need information to make structured, short range, and day to day decisions
examples: manager, supervisor, and foreman
Level 2 of the pyramid
tactical management
needs information to monitor and control activities within their department
examples: "middle management" include project manager and department manager
level 3 of the pyramid
strategic management
Need information to develop and monitor the overall strategy, goals, and objectives for the organization
examples: deciding to build a new factory or discontinue an existing product line
level 4 of the pyramid (the top)
organizational structure
the way their various parts are arranged to accomplish their work
functional structure
the most basic structure, groups together employees performing similar tasks
divisional structure
employees are grouped together based on the product to which they are assigned
matrix structure
employees are assigned to a functional area, but then are also assigned into a cross-functional team or work group with people from other functional areas, and collectively these groups work on specific products or services
team-based structures
use cross-functional teams working on specific projects
office automation system (OAS)
improve productivity by supporting generic, daily work activities of employees. Presentation or documents, calendars, sending emails, etc.
transaction processing systems (TPS)
designed to support the routine business transactions in a business. A transaction is a business interaction between two parties.
management information systems (MIS)
support decision making activities through information and reporting capabilities
detailed report
shows details of transactions such as a daily sales report
summary report
provides a consolidated view of the transaction data such as a monthly payroll by division report
exception report
shows transactions that fall outside of normal bounds
decision support systems (DSS)
help users analyze data to make decisions.
group decision support systems (GDSS)
designed to provide tools that support groups or teams of people working together to accomplish business tasks
executive information systems (EIS) or executive support systems (ESS)
provide information in support of strategic decisions. An interactive system that initially displays graphic, summarized information showing ratios or trends
expert system (ES)
provide expert advice fora variety of situations
enterprise wide system
designed to integrate information across different functional business areas
supply chain management systems (SCM)
track inventory and information related to creating products
customer relationship management systems (CRM)
help businesses build and maintain long-term, profitable relationships with their customers
enterprise resource planning system (ERP)
help manage business operations by integrating production proceses into one centralized system
electronic funds transfer (EFT)
electronically transfer cash from one bank account to another
computer aided design (CAD)
decrease the time needed by engineers and designers to develop new products including cars, airplanes, buildings and bridges
computer aided manufacturing (CAM)
systems can support manufacturing by determining machine settings, production line layouts, and automating the manufacturing process through robotics
supply chain management systems
used to more effectively manage the delivery of items from suppliers to the company
systems development
a set of activities designed to produce an information system that solves a business problem or meets a business need
Steps in the system development life cycle
1.Planning
2.Analysis
3.Design
4.Implementation
5.Support
project team
The group of different people involved in the development of an information system. Usually consists of user representatives from departments that will use the system, the project leader, the systems analyst, and other IT technical specialists
project leader
the person in charge of the entire project
systems analyst
responsible for analyzing, designing and developing the information system
user representatives
people that will use the system, they ensure the final product is correct
project management
involves planning, scheduling and controlling the activities involved in developing a system
project plan
a document that explains what the new system will do, what tasks are needed, how long it will take and how much it will cost to build
project scope
sets the boundaries on what will be done
Gantt chart
A tool used to create and manage the project schedule. A bar chart that identifies tasks and deadlines
Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) Chart
a tool used where you identify the shortest possible time, most likely time, and longest possible time for each activity. A formula is then used to arrive at a single time estimate
critical path
the tasks in a project that depend on each other, and collectively determine the length of the whole project
project management software
used to help automate the tasks associated with managing the project
scope creep
when new requirements are added to an already approved project. Can cause many problems including delaying the completion date and cost more than anticipated
business case
identifies what the organization will gain from the project along with the expected costs and limitations
feasibility analysis
helps the organization determine if the project is worth doing
technical feasibility
do we have the technical skills to be able to build this system?
economic feasibility
will the benefits gained from the system outweigh the costs to build and operate the system?
organizational feasibility
how easily will the users adapt to the new system? will the system be disruptive to existing organizational processes?
schedule feasibility
can we build the system within an acceptable time frame?
fact-finding techniques
ways that the systems analyst gather the needed data and information
interviewing
the most important and common technique used to gather information
joint application design (JAD)
the analyst will meet with a small group of users who provide input to the analyst
planning phase
answers the general questions of what problem is being solved, is the solution feasible, and how long will it take?
project development phase
the output of the planning phase, includes:
1) a statement of work (SOW) which identifies the problem to be solved
2)estimates of project feasibility
3)identification of the project team and resources required
4)project schedule
analysis phase
1)identify what the new system needs to do
2)create models of the data, processing and logic needs for the new system
3)recommend the best approach to develop the new system
system proposal
will detail the concept of "what" the new system will do, along with possible approaches to developing the new system
system requirements
the detailed set of features that must be included in the new system
prototyping
the analyst and users create an initial version of the system
data modeling
a technique for representing the structure of the data in the system
entity-relationship diagram (ERD)
a tool that is used to graphically represent the structure of the data
process modeling
a technique used for representing how the business operates
data flow diagram (DFD)
a tool that is used to graphically show the inputs, process, outputs and data storage of a system on one diagram
logic modeling
captures specific details about the decision logic that is used in different business tasks
decision tree
graphically shows conditions and the result actions
decision table
represents the conditions and actions in a tabular format
"make or buy" decision
should weigh the advantages and disadvantages relative to the specifics of the information system under development
packaged software
systems that have already been written and are available for purchase
in-house development
when an organization has experienced staff that write the program themselves
outsource
contract with another company to develop an information system
design phase
establishes how the new system will work by translating the requirements into detailed design specifications:
1) inputs and outputs
2) user interfaces
3) databases
4) programs
5) infrastructure
data dictionary
a tool used to record the name, description and characteristics about the data used in an information system
implementation phase
project team turns these specifications into a working system by accomplishing the following activities:
1) acquire any needed hardware and software components
2) write software programs
3) test the system
4) train users
5) convert to the new system
unit test
ensures that each individual program operates reliably and correctly by itself
system test
ensures that the different programs work correctly together
acceptance tests
ensure that the system aas a whole meets the needs of the business, and works correctly with the actual data from the business
training
teaching the users how to use the hardware and software in the new system
system conversion
the process of switching from an old information to the newly developed information system
parallel conversion
the organization puts in the new system while continuing to run the old system
direct conversion
the organization installs the new system and then turns off the old system
pilot conversion
involves implementing the complete system in a small part of the organization such as one department or one division
phased conversion
the new system is installed in phases across the organization. For example the inventory modules may be installed first and the payroll module installed later
support phase
this is when the project team is no longer responsible for the system and it is handed over to the support team
system maintenance
the support team provides this to ensure that the entire system, including all hardware and software components, is operating correctly
end-user development
an approach to building a system by and for the users
Rapid Application Development (RAD)
approach was designed to determine systems requirements and convert those requirements in to a working system as fast as possible
object-oriented (OO) software development
System is modeled as a collection of interacting objects. Objects represent real-world entities such as customers, products and employees