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84 Cards in this Set

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Telecommunications
Transmission of all forms of communication including digital data, voice, fax, sound, and video from one location to another over some type of network
Networks
A group of computers and peripheral devices connected by a communication channel capable of sharing information and other resources among users
Bandwidth
Is the carrying capacity of a telecommunications network. (i.e. the size of the telecommunications channel or the pipe)
ARPANET
(Advanced Research Project Agency Network
Created in the 1960s by DARPA (Defense Advance Research Projects Agency)
Used by government and universities as a means of communicating for research purposes
NSFNET
(National Science Foundation Network)
Created in 1986 by the National Science Foundation for connecting research institutions
Connected to ARPANET and many others (BITNET, CSNET, etc) to become a major component of the Internet
Internet Support
Ongoing support comes from many universities, federal and state governments, and national international research institutions and industry
Packet Switching
Allows millions of users to send large and small chucks of data across the Internet concurrently
Based on the concept of turn taking, packets from each user are alternated in the shared network (below)
Networks connected to the Internet use this concept
TCP – Transmission Control Protocol
Breaks information into small chucks called data packets
Manages the transfer of the packets from computer to computer
Reassembles data packets into a message at the destination
IP – Internet Protocol
Controls how data packets are formed
Addresses each packet with the source and destination address
A data packet conforming to the IP spec is called an IP datagram
Routers
Connect one network to another
Identify each device on a network as unique using IP protocol
Serve as the “Traffic Cop” directing packets to their destination
Backbone Network
Manages the bulk of network
Typically a higher speed protocol than individual LAN segments (e.g. uses fiber-optic cable which transfers data at 2 gigabits/second vs. LAN speed at 10 megabits/second)
Domain
Identifies the Website (host)
Comes in many suffixes such as:
.edu (educational institutions)
.org (organizations; non-profit)
.mil (military)
.net (network organizations)
Example: microsoft.com
IP Address
Each domain is associated with one or more IP addresses
Format: a 32-bit address written as 4 numbers (from 0-255) separated by periods
Example: 1.160.10.240
(URL) Uniform Resource Locator
Identifies particular Web pages within a domain
Example: http://www.microsoft.com/security/default.mspx
Internet Registry
Central repository of all Internet-related information
Provides central allocation of all network system identifiers
Managed by Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
Domain Name System (DNS)
Maintained by the Internet Registry
Used to associates hosts or domains with IP addresses
Root DNS database is replicated across the Internet
InterNic Registration Service
Assigns Internet Domains and IP addresses
Internet Corp. for Assigned Names and Number (ICANN) has responsibility for managing IP Addresses, domain names, and root server system management
Modem (stands for Modulate/Demodulate)
A modem convert signals back and forth from digital to analog for transmission and receipt between computers
A computer requires a modem to get access to the Internet
Internet Service Provider (ISP)
These companies provides access to the Internet for a fee
A computer is connected to an ISP through a modem to allow Internet access
Network Access Points (NAPs)
NAP’s connect ISP’s together
They serve as Internet access points for the ISPs and serve as exchange points for Internet traffic
Internet Backbone
Collection of main network connections and telecommunications lines that make up the Internet
POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service)
Also called PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network
Uses a dial-up modem and existing copper telephone wires
Has the slowest transmission rates for access
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)
A universal digital network standard used around the world
Usually no modem required and uses existing copper wires
Much faster than POTS…requires an exchange within 22k ft.
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)
Uses special modulation schemes to fit more data into existing telephone copper wires
Up to 12x faster than ISDN with same distance requirements.
Requires a modem but allows simultaneous phone service
Cable Modem
Uses cable television coaxial cable to transmit the signal and can be used while simultaneously watching TV
Requires a modem and offers speeds comparable to DSL
IoS (Internet over Satellite)
Uses a satellite dish to connect a computer to the Internet
IoS is usually slower than land-based options (DSL, Cable)
Many times the only option in remote areas
Wireless
Fixed wireless access points allow computers with access cards to access ground-based networks (e.g. DSL, cable)
Mobile wireless devices (e.g. phones, PDAs) can access networks using mobile wireless networks (e.g. cellular)
T1/T3 (Trunk Level 1 or 3)
Dedicated digital lines that are used for high volume traffic by large organizations who purchase from exchange carriers
T1 is 28 times faster than POTS,T3 is 28 times faster than T1
ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)
A method of transmitting voice, video, and data over high-speed LANS at very fast rates (28 times faster than T3)
Packet-based method with the potential to eliminate routers, allocated bandwidth, and communications media contention
SONET (Synchronous Optical Network)
Not used for typical business activity
Up to a 1000 times faster than T1
Used in high volume transmission activities
Internet Research User Frustration
After 1995, increases in personal and business traffic began congesting the network primarily used for research
Internet2
University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development (UCAID) was formed to lead the design and development of an private high-speed alternative to the public Internet
Abilene network backbone
A new network has been developed connecting IS researchers by use of GigaPop (Gigabit Point of Presence) network access points to a high-speed private network (currently operating at 10Gbps with a goal of 100Gbps)
Hypertext
A Web page stored on a Web server
Contains information and links to other related information (hyperlinks)
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
A standard method used to specify the format of Web pages
Uses codes/tags which stipulate how the content should appear to the user
Web Browser
A software program used to locate and display Web pages
Includes text, graphics, and multimedia content
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
A protocol used to process user requests for displaying Web pages from a Web server
Web Servers
A special computer that is specifically designed to store and “serve up” Web pages
This machine contains special hardware and software to perform its many specialized functions
Electronic Brochure
A display-only site that allows a company to disseminate sales and marketing information
Online Ordering
A function in addition to Electronic Brochure that allow customers to order and pay for products and service online
Electronic Marketplaces
A mechanism to bring together buyers and sellers providing a vehicle for them to trade with each other (e.g. eBay)
Online Customer Service
Used to enhance traditional customer service but providing information on the Website to help customers resolve issues
IS Security
Precautions taken to keep all aspects of information systems safe from unauthorized use access
Managerial Methods
Several techniques are commonly used to manage information systems security:
Risk Assessment
Controlling Access
Organizational Policies and Procedures
Backups and Recovery
Security Resources
A number of organizations exist to raise awareness, research, develop standards, and advise on solutions for Internet security (e.g. CERT/CC, CSD, CSIT)
Security Audit
Security Audit identifies all aspects of information systems and business processes that use them
Risk Analysis
assesses the value of assets being protected
Alternatives based on
Risk Analysis:
Risk Reduction, Risk Acceptance, Risk Transference
Risk Reduction
implementing active counter measures to protect systems (e.g. firewalls)
Risk Acceptance
implementing no counter measures
Risk Transference
transferring risk…buying insurance
Controlling Access
Keeping information safe by only allowing access to those that require it to do their jobs
Authentication
verifying identity before granting access (e.g. passwords)
Access Control
Granting access to only those system areas where the user is authorized (e.g. accouting)
Organizational Policies and Procedures

Acceptable Use Policies
formally document how systems should be used, for what, and penalties for non-compliance
Backups
taking periodic snapshots of critical systems data and storing in a safe place or system (e.g. backup tape)
Disaster Recovery Plans
spell out detailed procedures to be used by the organization to restore access to critical business systems (e.g. viruses or fire)
Disaster Recovery
executing Disaster Recovery procedures using backups to restore the system to the last backup if it was totally lost
Security Threats
Today we hear about many security breaches that affect organizations and individuals.

Some recently in the news:
Identity Theft, Denial of Service, & Spyware, Spam, Wireless Access, Viruses
Identity Theft
gaining access to some ones personal information allowing them to imitate you (stolen laptop)
Denial of Service
attacks on websites using zombie computers that overwhelm the site and shuts it down
Security Technologies
Companies and research organizations continue to develop and refine technologies to prevent security breaches. Some Include:
Firewalls
Biometrics
VPN and Encryption
Firewalls
A system of software, hardware or both designed to detect intrusion and prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network
Packet Filter
examine each packet entering and leaving network and accept/reject based on rules
Application Level Control
Performs certain security measures based on a specific application (e.g. file transfer)
Circuit Level Control
detects certain types of connections or circuits on either side of the firewall
Proxy Server
acts as, or appears as an alternative server that hides the true network addresses
Spyware
Any software that covertly gathers information about a user through an Internet connection without the users knowledge
Problems: uses memory resources, uses bandwidth, and can cause system instability
Prevention: Firewalls and Spyware software
Spam
Electronic junk mail or junk newsgroup postings usually for purpose of advertising for some product and/or service
Problems: nuisance, wastes time deleting, uses storage
Prevention: Spam Blocker software
Cookies
A message passed to a browser from a Web server. Used by legitimate programs to store state and user information
Problems: can be used to track user activities
Prevention: browser settings, firewall
Biometrics
A sophisticated authentication technique used to restrict access to systems, data and/or facilities
Uses biological characteristics to identify individuals such as fingerprints, retinal patterns in the eye, etc. that are not easily counterfeited
Has great promise in providing high security
Unauthorized Access to Wireless Networks
With the prevalence in use of wireless networks this threat is increasing
Problems - Drive-by hacking
an attacker accesses the network, intercepts data from it, and can use network services and/or sends attack instructions without entering the building
Prevention - Encryption
Prevention - Encryption between network and user devices
VPN (Virtual Private Network)
Called a secure tunnel
Dynamically generated network connection to connect users or nodes
This approach uses both authentication and encryption
Used extensively for remote access by employees
Encryption
The process of encoding messages before they enter the network or airwaves, and then decoding at the receiving end
Public Key
known and used to scramble messages (SSL)
Private Key
not known and used by receiver to descramble
Certificate Authority
a third party that issues keys
Viruses
Programs that can attack a computer and/or a network and delete information, disable software, use up all system resources, etc.
AntiVirus software:
install this software which is designed to block all known viruses and offers automatic or manual updates to virus patterns to block future viruses
No Disk Sharing
Viruses can be transferred to clean computers by inserting disks containing infected files
Delete Suspicious Email Messages
Do not open suspicious e-mail messages…Delete Only!
Report Viruses
If you get a virus, report it to you network administrator immediately!