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52 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is a business process?
A network of activities, resources, facilities, and information that interacts to achieve some business function
Identify business requirements
Description, Explanation, Prescription
Entity
Person place or thing
External Entity
an entity that does not perform any information processing activities
Internal Entity
an action being performed by an internal or external entity
Information Processing Actions (DP)
transform data, retrieve data from store, filing data, document processing, data entry, verification, classification, arrangement or sorting, calculating, summarizing
Not information (NDP) processing actions
Sending and receiving data between entities, operational and physical activities
Data flow diagram
A graphical representation of a business system or subsystem that shows how system components are interconnected
"Business Process" (as in DFD terminology)
An activity that converts inputs into outputs, verbs rather than nouns, Types: DP and NDP
Data Flow
Data moving from one place to another without being transformed
Data Store
A data flow at rest
"External Entity" as in DFD Terminology
An object that either sends or receives flows from within the system bu doesn't perform any processing activities or interest
Context Diagram
a graphical, top-level (i.e. overall overview) representation of the data flows into and out of the entire system under study. Marks the "boundary" (scope) of the sub-system under study (aka focus area), often exploded into more detail
Logical or Physical Data flow diagram
A detailed graphical representation of the data flows, processes, stores, and sources destination in a business subsystem. Used to model: how data flow through an information system, relationships among data flows and entities, how data end up stored at certain locations
What are the components of a business process?
Activities - Transforms resources and information
Resources - Items of value
Facilities - Structures within the business process
Databases
Inventory
Equiptment
Information
knowledge derived from data
Data
raw recorded facts or figures, used to create information
Characteristics of good information
Accurate - correct and complete
Timely - produced in time for intended use
Relevant - appropriate to context and subject
Sufficient - adequate (but just barely)
Worth the cost - trade-off
Automated systems
work done by computers/machines that was formerly done by people
Business process brings together various data items and generates information.
System/process uses data inputs
Based on these inputs (historical or even short term), various decisions can be made
Activities in a business process often use IS
One IS may support entire process or,
Each activity witin a process may have separate IS
Activities may be performed by automated systems
DFD (Other)
a drawing of a system that shows how system components, processes, and data are interonnected
DFD's are used to model:
How data flow through an information system
Relationships among data flows and entities
How data end up stored at certain locations
DFD's show processes (comprised of various activities) that change or transform data - called process modeling. Aims of process modeling:
Descriptive - traces what happens
Prescriptive - how process should be performed to achieve better results
Explanatory - possible reason for false or poor performance
Symbol for External Entity
Square or rectangle
Symbol for Process
Circle
Symbol for data store (data at rest)
Parellel lines/3sided retangle
Symbol for Data Flow
Arrow
Context Diagram (DFD) - Other Description
Overall overview of hte system, contains ONLY a single innumbered process that represents the entire system. Includes boundaries of system, external entities that interact with the system, and major information flows between external entities and system
Context Diagram Rules (1)
Contains ONE and only ONE process bubble describing entire system / process that is being modeled
Context Diagram Rules (2)
Process name should accurately describe the system being modeled
Context Diagram Rules (3)
No data stores shown in CD
Context Diagram Rules (4)
No flows between external entities in CD
Context Diagram Rules (5)
Each external entity must have at least one flow going into OR one flow coming out of the process (can have more)
Context Diagram Rules (6)
Flow names (arrows showing data flows) are NOUNS
Pysical DFD
Internal Entities and flows between then (who is involved)
Logical DFD
Activities and flows between them (what is being done)
Why use both logical AND physical DFD?
show different things...
physical - where and by whom
logical - what actions are occurring and how performed
Differences between Logical and Physical
Logical - Activities: processes are verbs
Physical - Peoples, places, and things: processes are nouns
Balanced DFD?
?
Drawing the CD
1. Read the problem description
2. Identify the process being modeled
3. Identify the external entities. Entities the process interacts with, but are not part in the process itself
4. Identify the data flows between the process and the external entities
Physical DFD Rules (1)
External entities have one or more data flows
Physical DFD Rules (2)
Labels on data flows must be nouns.
- Flows describe data moving through the system
- What are the data that are moving?
- SHould include form these data take: paper, electronic (for physical and context more descriptive info is better)
- DO NOT include verb descriptors in flows
Physical DFD Rules (3)
No flows between external entities.
- We do not care what occurs outside the system
- Flows between ecternal entities (even if tey seem intuitive) are not within the scope of the system/problem being model
Physical DFD Rules (4)
Data stores are nouns
- Data at rest
- Where are data being stored?
Physical DFD Rules (5)
Process bubbles should have at least one flow in and one flow out
- In physical DFD bubbles/processes are internal entities
- Each must receive some input (a flow) change it or do something to the data described in that flow in some way, and produce a different output flow
- A flow name should not be the same coming into a process and going out of a process 0 otherwise, how have the data been changed?
Physical DFD Rules (6)
No flows between data stores
- Data stores do not send / receive data
- Processes send / receive data
Physical DFD Rules (7)
Flows into or out of data stores start with or end with a process bubble
- Here (Physical DFD), the internal entities (process bubbles that are numbered) place data into a data store, pull data out of a data store, and update data stores
Physical DFD Rules (8)
Requests for data (to a data store) are not shown by a request flow coming in, just a data flow coming out of the store
-“Request” would be a verb
-Flows are nouns that show the data on the move
Physical DFD Rules (9)
In Physical DFD, process bubbles will be labeled with nouns
-Internal entities (WHERE or WHO)
-In Logical DFD process bubbles describe the activities or actions (WHAT is being done)
Physical DFD Rules (10)
DFD must be balanced with CD
-If CD has 2 external entities, so does Physical and Logical DFD
-The number of entities and flows (incoming and outgoing) do not change as more detail is provided
Process of Creating a Physical DFD
-Read through the narrative
-Create a table (list) of activities and entities
-Identify the entities (who or what) is responsible for each activity (what action being performed) – map these two
-Every activity should correspond to at least one entity
-Each entity may perform multiple activities