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128 Cards in this Set

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Acceptance testing
provides the final certification that the system is ready to be used in a production setting
Automation
using the computer to speed up the performance of existing tasks
Benchmarking
setting strict standards for products, services, or activities and measuring organizational performance against those standards
Business process reengineering
the radical redesign of business processes, combining steps to cut waste and eliminating repetitive, paper-intensive tasks to improve cost, quality, and service and to maximize the benefits of information technology
Component-based development
building large software systems by combining preexisting software components
Computer-aided software engineering (CASE)
automation of step-by-step methodologists for software and systems development to reduce the amounts of repetitive work the developer must do
Conversion
the process of changing from the old system to the new system
Critical success factors (CSFs)
a small number of easily identifiable operational goals shaped by the industry, the firm, the manager, and the broader environment that are believed to assure the success of an organization
Customization
the modification of a software package to meet an organization’s unique requirements without destroying the packaged software’s integrity
Data flow diagram (DFD)
primary tool for structured analysis that graphically illustrates a system’s component process and the flow of data between them
Direct cutover
a risky conversion approach in which the new system completely replaces the old one on an appointed day
Documentation
descriptions of how an information system works form either a technical or end-user standpoint
End-user development
the development of information systems by end users with little or no formal assistance from technical specialists
End-user interface
the part of an information system through which the end user interacts with the system, such as online screens and commands
Enterprise analysis
an analysis of organization-wide information requirements made by looking at the entire organization in terms of organizational units, functions, processes, and data elements
Feasibility study
as part of the systems analysis process, the way to determine whether the solution is achievable, given the organization’s resources and constraints
Fourth-generation languages
a programming language that can be employed directly by end users or less-skilled programmers to develop computer applications more rapidly than conventional programming languages
Information requirements
a detailed statement of the information needs that a new system must satisfy
Information systems plan
a road map indicating the direction of systems development
Iterative
a process of repeating over and over again the steps to build a system
Joint application design (JAD)
process to accelerate the generation of information requirements by having end users and information systems specialists work together in intensive interactive design sessions
Maintenance
changes in hardware, software, documentation, or procedures to a production system to correct errors, meet new requirements, or improve processing efficiency
Object
software building block that combines data and the procedures acting on the data
Object-oriented development
approach to systems development that uses the basic unit of systems analysis and design
Paradigm shift
radical reconceptualization of the nature of the business and the nature of the organization
Parallel strategy
a safe and conservative conversion approach where both the old system and its potential replacement are run together for a time until everyone is assured that the new one functions correctly
Phased approach
introduction of the new system in stages either by functions or by organizational units
Pilot study
a strategy to introduce the new system to a limited area of the organization until it is proved to be fully functional
Postimplementation audit
formal review process conducted after a system has been placed in production to determine how well the system has met its original objectives
Process specifications
describe the logic of the processes occurring within the lowest levels of a data flow diagram
Production
the stage after the new system is installed and the conversion is complete
Programming
the process of translating the system specifications prepared during the design stage into program code
Prototype
the preliminary working version of an information system for demonstration and evaluating purposes
Prototyping
the process of building an experimental system quickly and inexpensively for demonstration and evaluation so that users can better determine information requirements
Query languages
software tool that provides immediate online answers to requests for information that are not predefined
Rapid application development (RAD)
process for developing systems in a very short time period by using prototyping, fourth-generation tools, and close teamwork among users and systems specialists
Rationalization of procedures
the streamlining of standard operating procedures, eliminating obvious bottlenecks, so that automation makes operating procedures more efficient
Request for Proposal (RFP)
a detailed list of questions submitted to vendors of software or other services to determine how well the vendor’s product can meet the organization’s specific requirements
Six sigma
a specific measure of quality, representing 3.4 defects per million opportunities
Structure chart
system documentation showing each level of design, the relationship among the levels, and the overall place in the design structure
Structured
refers to the fact that techniques are carefully drawn up, step by step, with each step building on a previous one
Systems analysis
the analysis of a problem that the organization will try to solve with an information system
Systems design
details how a system will meet the information requirements as determined by the systems analysis
Systems development
the activities that go into producing an information systems solution for an organizational problem or opportunity
Systems life cycle
a traditional methodology for developing an information system that partitions the systems development process into formal stages that must be completed sequentially with a very formal division of labor between end users and information systems specialists
System testing
tests the functioning of the information system as a whole to determine whether discrete modules will function together as planned
Test plan
a plan prepared by the development team in conjunction with the users
Testing
the exhaustive and thorough process that determines whether the system produces the desired results under known conditions
Total quality management (TQM)
a concept that makes quality control a responsibility to be shared by all people in an organization
Unified modeling language (UML)
industry-standard methodology for analysis and design of an object-oriented software system
Unit testing
the process of testing each program separately in the system
Work-flow management
the process of streamlining business procedures so that documents can be moved easily and efficiently form one
Change agent
in the context of implementation, the individual acting as the catalyst during the change process to ensure successful organizational adaptation to a new system or innovation
Counterimplementation
a deliberate strategy to thwart the implementation of an information system or an innovation in an organization
Ergonomics
the interaction of people and machines in the work environment, including the design of jobs, health issues, and the end-user interface of information systems
External integration tools
project management technique that links the work of the implementation team to that of users at all organizational levels
Formal control tools
project management technique that helps monitor the progress toward completion of a task and fulfillment of goals
Formal planning tools
project management technique that structures and sequences tasks, budgeting time, money, and technical resources required to complete the tasks
Implementation
Simon’s final stage of decision making, when the individual puts the decision into effect and reports on the progress of the solution
Internal integration tools
project management technique that ensures that the implementation team operates as a cohesive unit
Man-month
the traditional unit of measurement used by systems designers to estimate the length of time to complete a project
Organizational impact analysis
study of the way a proposed system will affect organizational structure, attitudes, decision making, and operations
Sociotechnical design
design to produce information systems that blend technical efficiency with sensitivity to organizational and human needs
System failure
an information systems that does not perform as expected, is not operational at a specified time, or cannot be used in the way it was intended
User-designer communications gap
the difference in backgrounds, interests, and priorities that impede communications and problem solving among end users and information systems specialists
User interface
the part of the information system through which the end user interacts with the system
AI shell
the programming environment of an expert system
Artificial intelligence (AI)
the effort to develop computer-based systems that can behave like humans, with the ability to learn languages, accomplish physical tasks, use a perceptual apparatus, and emulate human expertise and decision making
Backward chaining
a strategy for searching the rule base in an expert system that acts like a problem solver by beginning with a hypothesis is either proved or disproved
Case-based reasoning (CBR)
artificial intelligence technology that represents knowledge as a database of cases and solutions
Chief knowledge officer (CKO)
senior executive in charge of the organization’s knowledge management program
Communities of practice (COPs)
informal social networks of professionals and employees within and outside the firm who have similar work-related activities and interests
Computer-aided design (CAD)
information system that automates the creation and revision of designs using sophisticated graphics software
Document management systems
digitize, index, and tag documents according to a coherent framework
Expert systems
knowledge-intensive computer program that captures the expertise of a human in limited domains of knowledge
Explicit knowledge
knowledge that has been documented
Forward chaining
a strategy for searching the rule base in an expert system that begins with the information entered by the user and searches the rule base to arrive at a conclusion
Fuzzy logic
rule-based artificial intelligence (AI) that tolerates imprecision by using nonspecific terms called membership functions to solve problems
Genetic algorithms
problem-solving methods that promote the evolution of solutions to specified problems using the model of living organisms adapting to their environment
Hybrid AI systems
integration of multiple artificial intelligence (AI) technologies into a single applications to take advantage of the best features of theses technologies
Inference engine
the strategy used to search through the rule base in an expert system
Intelligent agent
software program that uses a built-in or learned knowledge base to carry out specific, repetitive, and predictable tasks for an individual user, business process, or software application
Intelligent techniques
page 421
Investment workstations
powerful desktop computer for financial specialists that is optimized to access and manipulate massive amounts of financial data
Knowledge
concepts, experience, and insight that provide a framework for creating, evaluating, and using information
Knowledge base
model of human knowledge that is used by expert systems
Knowledge discovery
identification of novel and valuable patterns in large databases
Knowledge engineer
a specialist who elicits information and expertise from other professionals and translates it into a set of rules, or frames, for an expert system
Knowledge management
the set of processes developed in an organization to create, gather, store, maintain, and disseminate the firm’s knowledge
Knowledge network systems
online directory for locating corporate experts in well-defined knowledge domains
Knowledge repository
collection of documented internal and external knowledge in a single location for more efficient management and utilization by the organization
Knowledge work systems (KWS)
Learning management system (LMS)
tools for the management, delivery, tracking, and assessment of various types of employee learning
Neural networks
hardware or software that attempts to emulate the processing patterns of the biological brain
Organizational learning
creation of new standard operating procedures and business processes that reflect organizations’ experience
Rule base
the collection of knowledge in an artificial intelligence (AI) system that is represented in the form of IF-THEN rules
Semistructured knowledge
information in the form of less structured objects, such as e-mail, chat room exchanges, videos, graphics, brochures, or bulletin boards
Semistructured knowledge systems
system for organizing and storing less structured information, such as -mail, chat room exchanges, videos, graphics, brochures, or bulletin boards
Structured knowledge
knowledge in the form of structured documents and reports
Structured knowledge systems
system for organizing structured knowledge in a repository where it can be accessed throughout the organization
Tacit knowledge
expertise and experience of organizational members that have not been formally documented
Taxonomy
method of classifying things according to a predetermined system
Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML)
a set of specifications for interactive three dimensional modeling on the World Wide Web
Virtual reality systems
interactive graphics software and hardware that create computer-generated simulations that provide sensations that emulate real-world activities
Wisdom
the collection and individual experience of applying knowledge to the solution of problems
Activity-based costing
model for identifying all the company activities that cause costs to occur while producing a specific product or service so that managers can see which products or services are profitable or losing money and make changes to maximize firm profitability
Balanced scorecard
model for analyzing firm performance that supplements traditional financial measures with measurements from additional business perspectives, such as customers, internal business processes, and learning and growth
Business intelligence
applications and technologies to help users make better business decisions
Choice
Simon’s third strategy of decision making, when the individual selects among the various solution alternatives
Customer decision-support systems (CDSS)
system to support the decision-making process of an existing or potential customer
Data-driven DSS
system that analyzes large pools of data found in major corporate systems
Data visualization
technology for helping users see patterns and relationships in large amounts of data by presenting the data in graphical form
Design
Simon’s second stage of decision making, when the individual conceives of possible alternative solutions to a problem
Digital dashboard
displays all of a firm’s key performance indicators as graphs and charts on a single screen to provide a one-page overview of all the critical measurements necessary to make key executive decisions
Drill down
the ability to move from summary data to lower and lower levels of detail
DSS database
a collection of current or historical data from a number of applications or groups
DSS software systems
collection of software tools that is used for data analysis, such as online analytical processing (OLAP) tools, data-mining tools, or a collection of mathematical and analytical models
Geographic information systems (GIS)
system with software that can analyze and display data using digitized maps to enhance planning and decision making
Group decision-support systems (GDSS)
an interactive computer-based system to facilitate the solution of unstructured problems by a set of decision makers working together as a group
Implementation
Simon’s final stage of decision making, when the individual puts the decision into effect and reports on the progress of the solution
Intelligence
the first of Simon’s four stages of decision making, when the individual collects information to identify problems occurring in the organization
Model
an abstract unit of a program that illustrates the components or relationships of a phenomenon
Model-driven DSS
primarily standalone system that uses some type model to perform “what-if” and other kinds of analyses
Predictive analysis
uses of data-mining techniques, historical data, and assumptions about future conditions to predict outcomes of events
Sensitivity analysis
model that ask “what-if” questions repeatedly to determine the impact on outcomes of changes in one or more factors
Semistructured decisions
decisions in which only part of the problem has a clear-cut answer provided by an accepted procedure
Structured decisions
decisions that are repetitive, routine, and have a definite procedure for handling them
Unstructured decisions
nonroutine decisions in which the decision maker must provide judgment, evaluation, and insights into the problem definition