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95 Cards in this Set

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A group of programs that manipulate the database and provide an interface between the database and the user of the database and other application programs.
Database management system
DBMS
Database management system
basic building block of information consisting of uppercase letters, lowercase letters, numeric digits, or special symbols
character
typically a name, number, or combination of characters that describes an aspect of a business object or activity
field
A collection of related data fields
record
A collection of related records
file
bits, characters, fields, records, files and databases
hierarchy of data
generalized class of people, places, or things for which data is collected, stored, and maintained
entity
a characteristic of an entity
attribute
the specific value of an attribute
data item
a field or set of fields in a record that is used to identify the record
key
a field or set of fields that uniquely identifies the record
primary key
an approach whereby separate data files are created and stored for each application program
traditional approach to data management
duplication of data in separate files
data redundancy
the degree to which the data in any one file is accurate
data integrity
an approach whereby a pool of related data is shared by multiple application programs
database approach to data management
data modeling done at the level of the entire enterprise
enterprise data modeling
a data model that uses basic graphical symbols to show the organization of and relationships between data
entity-relationship diagrams
entity-relationship diagrams
ER
a data model in which data is organized in a top-down, or inverted tree, structure
hierarchical database model
An expansion of the hierarchical database model with an owner-member relationship in which a member may have many owners
network model
a database model that describes data in which all data elements are placed in two-dimensional tables, called relations, that are the logical equivalent of files
relational database model
the allowable values for data attributes
domain
data manipulation that chooses rows according to certain criteria
selecting
data manipulation that chooses columns in a table
projecting
data manipulation that combines two or more tables
joining
data manipulation that combines two or more tables using common data attributes to form a new table with only the unique data attributes
linked
a description of the entire database
schema
a file that contains a description of a subset of the database and identifies which users can view and modify the data items in the subset
subschema
a collection of instructions and commands used to define and describe data and data relationships in a specific database
data definition language
DDL
Data definition language
a detailed description of all the data used in the database
data dictionary
A method of dealing with a situation in which two or more people need to access the same record in a database at the same time
concurrency control
the commands that are used to manipulate the data in a database
data manipulation language
DML
Data manipulation language
a highly skilled and trained systems professional who directs or performs all activities related to maintaining a successful database environment
Database administrator
DBA
Database administrator
a nontechnical but important person who ensures that data is managed as an important organizational resource
data administrator
A database that collects business information from many sources in the enterprise, covering all aspects of the company's processes, products and customers
data warehouse
a subset of a data warehouse
data mart
an information analysis tool that involves the automated discover of patterns and relationships in a data warehouse
data mining
a form of data mining that combines historical data with assumptions about future conditions to predict outcomes of events such as future product sales or the probability that a customer will default on a loan
predictive analysis
the process of getting enough of the right information in a timely manner and usable form and analyzing it so that it can have a positive impact on business strategy, tactics, or operations
business intelligence
a continuous process involving the legal and ethical collection of information, analysis, and controlled dissemination of information to decision makers
competitive intelligence
the steps an organization takes to protect information sought by hostile intelligence gatherers
counterintelligence
the process of capturing a company's collective expertise wherever it resides-in computers, on paper, in people's heads-and distributing it wherever it can help produce the biggest payoff
knowledge management
software that allows users to explore data from a number of different perspectives
on-line analytical processing
OLAP
on-line analytical processing
Standards that ensure that software written to comply with them can be used with any ODBC-compliant database
open database connectivity standards
a DBMS capable of manipulating audio, video, and graphical data
ORDBMS object-relational database management system
_____is one of the most valuable resources a firm possesses
Data
Data is organized into a hierarchy that builds from the smallest element to the largest: list all six
bit, byte, field, record, file, and database
An _____ is a generalized class of objects for which data is collected, stored, and maintained
entity
An ______is a characteristic of an entity
attribute
Specific values of attributes-called ________-can be found in the fields of the record describing an entity
data items
A _____ key is a field within a record that is used to identify the record
data
A _________key uniquely identifies a record
primary
a ______ key is a field in a record
secondary
The traditional approach to data management has been from a
file perspective
In traditional file-based data management, ___ ____are created for each application.
Separate files
This file-based data mgmt approach can create problems over time: as more files are created for new applications, data that is common to the individual files becomes
redundant
if data is changed in one file in file-based mgmt those changes might not be made to other files, reducing
data integrity.
The database approach was developed. Benefits of this approach include reduced data redundancy, improved data consistency and integrity, easier _____ _______, standardization of data access, and more _____ program development.
modification and updating; efficient
Potential disadvantages of the database approach include the relatively high cost of _______ __________a DBMS in a mainframe operating environment; specialized staff required to implement and coordinate the use of the database; and increased __________ if security is breached and there is a failure in the DBMS.
purchasing and operating; vulnerability
When building a database, careful consideration must be given to 3 things:
content and access, logical structure, and physical organization
One of the tools database designers use to show the relationships among data is a ___ ____that shows data entities and their _____
data model; relationships
Enterprise data modeling involves analyzing the ___ ______ of the entire organization
data and information needs
___or ________ __________ diagrams can be employed to show the 'relationships between entities in the organization.
Entity-relationship (ER)
Databases typically use one of three common models:
hierarchical (tree), network, and relational
The _______ _____, the most widely used database model, is easier to control, more flexible, and more intuitive than the other models because it organizes data in tables.
relational model
A _____is a group of programs used as an interface between a database and application programs
DBMS data base management system
When an application program requests data from the database, it follows a _____ _____ path.
logical access
The actual retrieval of the data follows a ____ _____path.
physical access
Records can be considered in the same way: a ______record is what the record contains; a ______ record is where the record is stored on storage devices.
logical; physical
______ are used to describe the entire database, its record types, and their relationships to the DBMS
Schemas
A database management system provides four basic functions:
providing user views, creating and modifying the database, storing and retrieving data, and manipulating data and generating reports.
_________ are used to define a user view, the portion of the database a user can access and/or manipulate.
Subschemas
Schemas and subschemas are entered into the computer via a ___ ____ ____, which describes the data and relationships in a specific database
data definition language
Another tool used in database management is the _____ _____, which contains detailed descriptions of all data in the database
data dictionary
Once a DBMS has been installed, the database may be ___ ___ ____via a data manipulation language.
accessed, modified, and queried
___is used in several popular database packages today and can be installed on PCs and mainframes
SQL
Popular end-user DBMSs include Microsoft Access, Lotus Approach, Corel Paradox, and FileMaker's FileMaker Pro. ___ ___ ___ ___ are the leading DBMS vendorS.
IBM, Oracle, Microsoft, and Sybase
A _____ ______ is a highly skilled and trained systems professional who directs or performs all activities related to maintaining a successful database environment.
database administrator (DBA)
The role of the data administrator is a _____ but important one that ensures that data is managed as an important ______ _______
nontechnical;organizational resource.
Organizations are building data warehouses, which are ____ ____ ____ ____specifically designed to support management decision making
relational database management systems
____ _____ which is the automated discovery of patterns and relationships in a data warehouse, is emerging as a practical approach to generate a hypothesis about the _____ _______ ________in the data that can be used to predict future behavior.
Data mining; patterns and anomalies
_____ _______ is the process of getting enough of the right information in a timely manner and usable form and analyzing it so that it can have a positive impact on business strategy, tactics, or operations
Business intelligence
_____ ______is one aspect of business intelligence limited to information about competitors and how that information affects strategy, tactics, and operations
Competitive intelligence
____________describes the steps an organization takes to protect information sought by "hostile" intelligence gatherers.
Counterintelligence
_____ ______ is the process of capturing a company's collective expertise wherever it resides-in computers, on paper, or in people's heads-and distributing it wherever it can help produce the biggest payoff
Knowledge management
A _____ _____is a database in which the data may be spread across several smaller databases connected via telecommunications devices
distributed database
Multidimensional databases and ____ ______ programs are being used to store data and allow users to explore the data from a number of different perspectives.
on-line analytical processing (OLAP)
An _____ _____ _____ ____ ___ provides a complete set of relational database capabilities, plus the ability for third parties to add new data types and operations to the database
object-relational database management system (ORDBMS)
These new data types can be audio, images, unstructured text, spatial data, or time series data that require new ___ ___ ___
indexing, optimization, and retrieval features
_____ _____ _____involves the use of an object-relational database to store and access data according to the locations it describes and to permit spatial queries and analysis.
Spatial data technology