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106 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Group of componenets that interact to produce information
Information System
development and use of information systems that help businesses achieve goals and objectives
How does information system differ from Information technology?
Information system is assembling this hardware, software, data, procedures, and people that eventually product information
cost of data communication and data storage is essentially zero
moore's law
role in IS security
-strong passwords
-password etiquette
network of activities, roles, resources, responsibilities, and data flows that interact to accopmlish a business function
business process
components of a buisness process
-repository (collection of business records)
-data flows: movement of a data item from one activity to another
-Componenets: hardware, software, data, procedure, people
knowledge derived from data, where data is defined as recorded facts or figures
Characteristics of good information
-just barely sufficient
-worth its cost
Where is information in business processes?
-information in repositories
-data can also be stored in a database
How does organizatoinal strategy determine information systems structure?
organizaitons examine the strucutre of their industry and from that, develop a competitive strategy. This strategy determines value chains, which, in turn, determine business processes
Porter's Five forces
-Threat of new entrants
-Buyer power
-Supplier Power
-Threat of substitue products/services
-rivalry competition
focus its strategy on a particular industry segment
competitve strategy
network of value-creating activities
value chain
business functoins that relate directly to production of organization's product/service
primary activities
interactions across value activities. uses sales forecasts to plan production; it then uses the production plan to determine raw materials needs and then uses the material eneds to scheudle purcahses
value chain linkages
how do value chains determine business processes and information systems?
Each company implements their value chain activities in ways that are consisten with its competitive strategy
How do information systems provide competitive advantages?
-competitive advantage via products
-competitive advantage via processes
competitive advantage via products
-creating new products or service
-enhancing products/services
-differentiating products and services from those of their consumers
Competitive advantage via business processes
establishing alliances with other organizaitons. Implementations:
-lock in customers and buyers
-lock in suppliers
-raise barriers to market entry
-establish alliances
-reduce costs
how does a company use IS to create competitive advantage
-eases the effort of creating a shipment
-helps differentiate product from competitors that do not have similar system
Why do programmers volunteer their services?
-writing a computer program can be fun
-gives them the freedom to choose the projects upon which they work
-to exhibit one's skill
how does open source work?
with open source, anyone can obtain the source code from the open source project's Web site
-whether open source works for a particular situation depends on the requirements and constraints of that situation
Purpose of a database
-keep track of things
-keep numerous records in all one place
-lists that involve a single theme can be stored in a spreadsheet
-lists that involve multiple themes require a database
collection of tables plus relationships among the rows in those tables, plus special data
what does a database contain
-bytes: a character of data
-columns are also called fields
-fields are grouped into rows, which are called records
-relationships among records: a table or file
-foreign key
column or group of columns that identifies a unique row in a table
foreign key
certain columns are keys, but they are keys of a different table than the one which they are inside
Database management system: software program used to craete, process, and adminstera a database
Database application
-collection of forms, reports, queries, and application programs that process a database
collection of computers that communicate with one another over transmission lines or wirelessly
computer network
Local area network: connects computers that reside in a single geographic location on the premises of the company that operates the LAN
components of LAN
-Switch: recieves and transmits wired traffice on LAN
-LAN device: has a switch and a device for wireless communication
-network interface card: connects the computer's or printer's circuitry to the network cables
signals on the cables are light rays, and they are reflected inside the glass core
optical fiber cables
Wireless NC (WNIC)
wireless technology that is used instead of NIC.
Wide area networks: connect cmoputres at different geographic locations. Connecting to internet service provider
Alternative to connecting to WAN
-DSL line, cable TV line, cell phone-like connection
operate on the same lines as voice telephones, but their signals do not interfere with voice telephone service
DSL modem (digital subscriber line)
DSL lines that have differnt upload and download speeds
Asymmetric digital subscriber lines (ADSL)
have the same receiving and transmitting speeds (big businesses)
symmetrical digital subscriber lines (SDSL)
provide high-speed data transmission using cable television lines
cable modem
WAN wireless connection
-Wimax: greatest potential for speed
-Narrowband: lower speeds
-Broadband: high speeds (middle)
networks of networks. Connects LANS, WANS, and other interets
TCP/IP protocol architecture
-top layer: protocols for applications (browsers and Web services)
-next two layers about data communications across any interent
-bottom two layers involve protocols that concern data transmission within a network
hypertext transport protocol: used between browsers and web servers
tarnsport porotocl that break your traffic up into pieces and send each piece along its way, also detects that condition and cause retransmisission of that price
Transmission control protocol (TCP)
protocl that specifies the routing of the pieces of your data communication through the networks that comprise any internet
Internet Protocol
IP addressing
number that identifies a particular device
What happens on a typical web server
manage HTTP traffic by sending and receiving Web pages to and from clients
Three-tier architecture
arrangement of user computers and servers into three categories:
-user tier
-server tier
-database tier
consists of computers, phones, and other devices that have browsers that request and process Web pages
User tier
consists of computers that run Web servers and process application programs
Server tier
consists of computer that run a DBMS that process SQL requests to retrieve and store data
Database tier
application program that runs on a server tier copmuter
commerce server
Hypertext markup language: most common language for defining the structure and layout of web pages
extensible markup language: markup language that fixes several HTML deficiencies and is commonly used for program-to-program interaction over the web
add-on to browsers that is useful for providing animation, movies,and other advanced graphics
browser add-on that was developed by microsoft for the same purpses as flash. Has newer technology and more functionality than flash
uses the internet to create the appearance of private point-to-point connections
VPN (Virtual Private Network)
VPN benefits
maintains security VPN client software through encrypts or codes the original message so its contents are protected from snooping
-enables remote access
types of information systems
-personal information systems
-workgroup information sytems
-enterprise information systems
-interenterprise information systems
How do successful business professionals use IS
assists to achieve the goals and objectives of that business
personal information systems
used by a single individual
workgroup information systems
shared by a group of people for a particular purpsoe
enterprise information systems
information systems that span an organizaiton and support activities in multiple departments
interenterprise information systems
information systems that are shared by two or more independent organizations
condition that exists when data are isolated in separated information systems
information silos
how do information silos arise?
arise as a consequence of an organizatoin's growth and increasing use of information systems
How do enterprise information systems eliminate silos?
when an enterprise sysetm is implemented, all the departments that use it must change their business processes
activity of altering and designing business processes to take advantage of new information systems
business process reengineering
What supports enterprise systems
-Customer relationship management (CRM)
-Enterprise resource planning (ERP)
-Enterprise application integration (EAI)
suite of applications, database, and a set of inherent processes for managing all the interactions with the customer, from lead generation to customer service
Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
suite of applications, database, and a set of inherent processes for consolidating business operations into a single, consistent, computing platform
enterprise resource planning (ERP)
suite of software applications that integrates existing systems by providing layers of software that connect applications together
enterprise application integration (EAI)
Challenges when implementing new enterprise systems
-collborative management
-requirement gaps
-transition problems
-employee resistance
information systems used between or among organizations that are independently owned and managed
interorganizational systems
interorganizational systems
-pre-internet systems
-Web 2.0
-Enterprise 2.0
pre-internet sysetms
slow. vendors in contorl of relationship.
Ex: post mail, telephone
buying and selling of goods and services over public and private computer networks
Web 2.0
even faster. rise of user-generated contenct
enterprise 2.0
customer selects relationship characteristics, vendors lose control of relationships.
-Ex: facebook, twitter, social CRM
software design methodology and set of program communication standards that greatly improve the flexibility and adaptability of interorganizational program-to-program communication
service-oriented architecure
E-commerce merchant copmanies
-B2C ( business to consumer)
-B2B (business to business)
-B2G (business to government)
nonmerchant e-commerce
-clearing houses
-electronic exchange
clearing houses
provide goods and services at a state price and arrange for the delivery of the goods, but never take the title
electronic exchange
matches buyers and sellers; the business process is simliar to that of a stock exchange
How does e-commerce imporove market efficiency
-leads to disintermediation :elimination of middle layers of distributors and suppliers
-produces information about price elasticity
Why is Web 2.0 imporatnt to businesses?
-viral marketing
-user-generated content
viral marketing
no marketing is done to promite sites, new features are released and vendors wait for users to spread the news to one anotehr
user-generated content
refers to web site content that is contributed by useres
users can provide customer support to one another, or participate in the creation of product specifications
how can businesses benefit from web 2.0?
-adwords: vendors pay google an amount for particular search words
-adsense: google software where ads are inserted that match content on that site
investment of social relations with the expectation of returns in the marketplace
social capital
information containing patterns, relationships,and trends
business intelligence
why do organizaitons need business intelligence
use business intelligence to process the immense data, and to deliver info ona timely basis to users who need it
How do business intelligence systems provide competitive advantage?
provides information for improving decision making
extract and clean data from operational systems and other sources and to store and catalog that data for process by business intelligence tools
data warehouse
data collection that is created to address the needs of a particular business function
data mart
applicaiton of statistical techniques to find patterns and relationships among data and to classify and predict things
data mining
unsupervised data mining
anlysts do not create a model or hypothesis before running the analysis
supervised data mining
data miners develop a model prior to the analysis and apply statistical techniques to data to estimate parameters of the model
process of creating and maintaining information systems
systems development
adding more people to a late project makes the project late. the costs of trainning new people can overwhelm the benefits of their contribution
brooks' law
traditional processes used to develop information systems
Software development life cycle (SDLC)
five phases of SDLC: 1. system definition
use management's statement of the system needs in order to begin to define the new sysetm
specialize in understanding business needs, strategies, goals, and helping businesses implement systems to accomplish their competitive strategies
business analysts