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6 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
description: a posterior curvature of the upper spine, increased thoracic

causes: normally osteoporosis

symptoms: mild back pain, fatigue, rounding of back
description: known as hollow back or sway back, characterized by anterior rotation of the pelvis, vertebral column curves anteriorly, increased lumbar

causes: difference in thickness between the anterior and posterior part of the intervertebral disk, sometimes obesity

symptoms: weakened trunk musculature
Anulus fibrosus degeneration
anulus fibrosus: surrounds the nucleus pulposus in the intervertebral discs

description: loss of elastin and dehydration coupled with gain of collagen causes IV discs to stiffen and become more resistant to deformation, can cause pulposus to herniate and compress spinal cord, accounts for shrinking in older people
rib fracture and flail chest
rib fracture: most commonly occurs on middle ribs, usually result from blows or crushing injuires, normally occurs just anterior to the angle (which is the weakest), but a strong enough blow can fracture the bone anywhere, broken ends may injure internal organs such as the liver, spleen or diaphragm

flail chest: aka stove-in chest, painful injury that impairs ventilation, affecting oxygenation of the blood, occurs when a segment of the thoracic wall detaches from the rest of the chest wall, break rib at 2 or more points to cause detachment
intercostal nerve block
procedure where anestheisa is administered to an intercostal space, causes the perception and transmission of pain to be interrupted before it reaches the brain

occurs: around the intercostal nerves between the paravertebral line and the area of required anesthesia
thoracentesis and chest tube insertion
obtainment of fluid or blood from the pleural cavity through the insertion of a hypodermic needle, inserted superior to the rib, angled upward, avoiding the collateral branches

used: accumulation of fluid in the chest cavity outside the lung, pleural effusions caused most commonly caused by cancer, congestive heart failure, pneumonia, or TB