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22 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Define alloy
a solid mixture of two or more metals where one metal is dissolved in another
How are large crystals formed?

Magma cooling deep inside the earth cools slowly which leads to large crystals.
What is an open pit mine?
a huge pit that is used to remove ore
each mineral has its own characteristic density
define smelting
the melting of ore to separate metal from other elements
How does a strip mine work?
strips of the earth are taken away by a huge piece of equipment exposing the ore underneath
define gemstones
hard, colorful minerals with a brilliant or glassy luster
How are smaller crystals formed?
Magma which cools close to the surface cools more quickly which makes smaller crystals.
define fracture
the way a mineral looks when it breaks apart
How are minerals formed by evaporation?
water evaporates from a solution leaving crystals of minerals
define luster
this describes how a mineral reflects light from its surface
Terms to describe luster include waxy, glassy, earthy, pearly, bright, metallic
When does a gemstone become a gem?
When it is cut and polished it is called a gem. Gems are used for jewelry, decorating, mechanical parts, and for grinding and polishing.
define metals
minerals such as aluminum, iron, copper, or silver which are both ductile and malleable
special properties
Where are minerals found?
in different types of rock, other minerals are found near volcanoes and mountains. Copper deposits are found along the Andes Mountains
types of fracture
shell shaped, hackly,(copper and iron), earthy, (like clay)
uneven (with rough surfaces)
define streak
the color of the powder left by a mineral if it is rubbed against a hard surface like a tile, works well with soft minerals, hard minerals do not have a streak
What is an ore?
a rock that has a metal or other useful mineral in it
Why is color not a reliable test?
some minerals have many colors, malachite is always green and azure is always blue
How do minerals form along the mid-ocean ridge?
water heated by magma dissolves minerals, the hot water rushes up the chimneys out onto the land, as the water cools the minerals crystallize
How are minerals used?
foods, medicines, fertilizers, and building materials
hardness test
The Mohs hardness scale ranks ten minerals from softest to hardest, a mineral can scratch any mineral that is softer than itself but will be scratched by a mineral that is harder.