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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Some minerals come from molten rock from a volcano. Molten rock underground is called....
magma
Molten rock above ground is called ....
lava
Some minerals form when water evaporates. This is called formation by p____
precipitation
The two most abundant elements in the earth's crust are __ and ___. The most common minerals are ____ which contain those two elemetns.
oxygen and silicon
silicates
Minerals that contain a metal and element oxygen are called ______
oxides
The second most abundant minerals contain carbon and oxygen and they fizz when exposed to hydrochloric acid. They are....
carbonates (such as limestone)
Matter is anything that has ____ and ____
volume and mass
The building blocks of minerals are....
elements
An ____ is a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical or physical means.
element
The chart that contains all the elements is called the ....
periodic table
Three physical states of matter are s___, l____, and g____
solid
liquid
gas
The smallest particle of an element that still has the properties of that element is an ....
atom
The majority of the elements on the planet (and on the periodic table) are .....
metals
There are 17 ____ elements on the right hand side of the periodic table, just right of the metalloids.
nonmetals
Manmade diamonds can't be called minerals because minerals must be...
naturally occurring
Minerals have a definite cr______ structure.
crystalline
Minerals must be i_____, meaning that they cannot be made of carbon and hydrogen.
inorganic
Minerals must not be liquid or gaseous. They must be....
solid
Petroleum oil out of the ground is sometimes mistakenly called a mineral. It is not. Why?
Liquids cannot be minerals
Halite and calcite are great examples of _____. When they break, they do so on nice flat planes and always keep the same angles.
cleavage
Atoms that bond together to form new substances are called c_______
compounds
Some minerals contain sulfur. We call them s________
sulfides
An example of a mineral that can be identified by its magnetism is.....
lodestone, also called magnetite
Some minerals contain an element that is in the halogen family on the periodic table. We call these chlorine & fluorine-containing minerals....
halides
Sometimes we identify a mineral by rubbing it across an abrasive plate to see what color its powder is. We call this the _____ test.
streak
When a mineral shines like a metal shines, we say it has l______
luster
We use M____ Hardness scale to tell how hard a mineral is.
Mohs
Mohs Hardness Scale has ___ numbers with #1 being talc.
10
The hardest number on Mohs Hardness Scale is #____ and it is for the mineral d___________
10
diamond
Carbonates are often hard to tell apart from other minerals. But, it's easy to do if you have a liquid called h____ a____, which causes carbonates to fizz readily
hydrochloric acid