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20 Cards in this Set

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Name the four "privileged domains".
1. physical concepts
2. biological causality
3. early number concepts
4. early attention to language
Children are predisposed to readily learn in these areas.
Name the 7 multiple intelligences.
1. linguistic
2. logical
3. spatial
4. musical
5. intrapersonal
6. interpersonal
7. bodily-kinesthetic
These intelligences were pioneered by Howard Gardner.
What are the four ways that children learn?
1. learning predispositions
2. strategies and metacognition
3. theories of mind
4. culture and community
Children some innate and acquired features to navigate learning.
Name two predominant theories of mind that children can possess.
a. entity theories
b. incremental theories
These theories of mind
a. are motivational in nature
b. concern beliefs about intelligence
Name and describe 5 ways that children's learning is studied.
1. computational modeling
2. mathematical analyses
3. functional brain imaging
4. behavioral experiments(i.e. non-nutritive sucking, paradigms of habituation, visual expectation)
5. computer simulations
Methods which reveal concepts about physical and biological causalities, and language understanding.
Describe the two facets of metacognition.
1. Self-reflection: ability to assess level of mastery in learning tasks; transferring learning to new situations/events

2. Self-regulation: ability to enhance and correct strategies for learning various tasks.
Which disciplines have devoted themselves to the study of learning?
1. Theology
2. Philosophy
3. Psychology
4. Radical behaviorism
5. Moderate behaviorism
6. Cognitive Science
Several disciplines have been concerned with the study of learning. Many disciplines have evolved from or emerged in refutation to previous disciplines.
What did radical behaviorism have to say about the limitations of the initial psychological approach to learning?
Behaviorists believed that mental events were inaccessible and unobservable, and therefore, unusable.
Why is Cognitive Science considered multidisciplinary?
Cognitive Science incorporates several fields, which include psychology, neuroscience, computer science, philosophy, anthropology, linguistics, and many more...
How did behaviorists conceputalize learning?
Behaviorists purported that learning consisted of series of "stimuli", "responses",
"rewards", and "punishments"; the various interactions of the phenomena constituted different learning experiences.
Describe the limitation of radical behaviorism.
Radical behaviorism was incapable of describing mental events, particularly "understanding, reasoning, and thinking"
The Science of Learning incorporates the study of...
1. memory and structure of knowledge
2. problem solving and reasoning
3. early foundations of learning
4. regulatory mechanisms that govern learning (e.g. metacognition)
5. how symbolic thinking emerges from the community and culture of a learner
Why have children been referred to as a "tabula rosa"?
A longstanding notion of infants is that they are a "blank slate" - passive and unknowing observers.
Describe Piaget's belief about the knowledge of infants.
Piaget believed that infants gradually "constructed" their knowledge of objects, space, time, and causality over a period of 2 years.
Distinguish between
Perceptual learning theorists and
Information processing theorists
1. Perceptual learning theorists espoused that learning proceeded from the availability of exploration patterns of knowledge for infants to learn
2. Information processing theories created the metaphor of mind as a "computational organism"
What aspect of learning was Vygotsky interested in?
Vygotsky studied the role and influence of the social environment as well as cultural tools/objects on learning.
What is the "Zone of Proximal Development"?
The Zone of Proximal Development is the supportive context of parents, peers, and partners that contribute to a child's learning.
Name some ways to children's learning can be guided by a parents and/or teacher.
1. arrangement of the environment
2. emotional cueing
3. verbal and nonverbal modeling
4. scaffolding: presenting, simplifying, demonstrating "idealized" version of task to be learned.
Name some cultural variations in learning.
1. conversing
2. observing
3. eavesdropping
4. known-answer questioning
5. analogy/metaphor questioning
The theory of learning seeks to develop changes in...
1. curriculum design
2. teaching and assessment