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31 Cards in this Set

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1st Major Theme
Rational military considerations rarely shape military policy.
EX. Not allowing those who carry guns to decide who and when to kill, not allowing Commander in Chief to wear uniform, people reluctant to pay taxes to support military.
2nd Major Theme
American Defense Policy is built on pluralistic military institutions that miss professional military restrictions.
Ex. Mix of professional and citizen soldiers; 10 % against forces, 10 % all for.
3rd Major Theme
America is never ready for war; however, we have been relatively secure for a variety of reasons:
1. Geography-surrounded by ocean
2. Resources-ability to mine. make iron, weaponry, relatively rich
3. American Resolve-individualistic nature when pulled together makes us stand up and take action
4th Major Theme
America does have a firm commitment to civilian control over the military, but this requires a special kind of military/civilian relationship. This also causes uninformed civilians to have supervisory authority over uniformed officers.
5th Major Theme
We have a professional officer core, which causes a certain kind of nationalization or federalization of the military. This requires us to think in terms of special schools and education for those who wish to become officers.
Ex. ROTC, OCS, West Point, Naval/Air War College
6th Major Theme
Technology has enabled America to contend with armies and military unites that are larger than ours.
Ex. Atomic power, computerization, air power
Iron Curtain
term used in U.S., not coined by an American, given in a speech at West Minister College in Fulton, MO on March 4, 1967. Churchill, "an iron curtain has descended across the European continent.
Liberals during Cold War
Need to export our greatness, democracy, tended to be Dems.
Conservatives during Cold War
Robert Taft, don't need weapons, just bombs
New Look
Don't need infantry anymore, need airplanes, Ike's deal
NCS Report #68/Truman Doctrine
Issued in 1948 by Kennan.
1. Said U.S. realized Soviet's goal was world domination and U.S. will do everything in its power to *contain communism*, does not say will defeat, contain the expansion.
2. For the next 45 years, U.S. and Soviet will fight *Proxy Wars* all over the continent; try to keep wars from happening due to respect of each other's military.
3. *China under communist Mao Tse Tung*-going up against Nationalist leader *Chiang Khi Shek*, Mao takes over and China falls to communism, Truman blamed for losing China.
4. June 1950, commie leaders and parties invade S. Korea from N. Korea and Truman Doctrine tested
Gen. Spatz
Commanding general after WWII, believed Air Force should handle everything in air, no need for naval aviation.
Johnson
Truman's Sec. of Defense, loved the Air Force, scraps Navy's super carrier idea (U.S.S. United States) , pisses Navy off and say can take out Air Force carriers if you give us a chance, Johnson thinks that would undermine national security.
Revolt of Admirals
Admirals appear before House Armed Service Committee, saying Air Force is taking away Naval power, accuse Truman and Johnson of being too much in favor of Air Force, convinced important members not to completely scrap Naval Tactical Air Arm. Sec. of Navy resigns, head of Navy operations fired by Johnson for being too aggressive
Korean War
1. North Korea People's Army led by Kim Il Sung across 38th parallel into S. Korea with 250 K troops, magnitude catches everyone by surprise.
2. S. Korea led by Rhee, had to flee south because caught by surprise and ends up in Pusan.
3. Truman authorizes sending troops to S. Korea, Gen McArthur in charge.
Air Force in Korea
Tactical Control Parties:
1. Forward Air Controller- usually in Army on ground contacting.
2. Joint Operation Center- for Air Force close air support telling them what they need.
3. JOC-prioritizes requests, contacts the Tactical Air Control Center.
4. TACC contacts the flight, flight contacts FAC to tell on the way, usually about 45 minutes, could take up to day.
4. The F-80 had to take off from Japan, by the time got to location, had about 10 minutes of "on-station" time
Marines in Korea
1. Have a lot more experience with close air support, practicing since 1933.
2. FAC always on ground at battalion level, a rifleman first, FAC second.
3. FAC contacts TACC, TACC sends request to aircraft, aircraft contacts FAC
4. Takes about 15 minutes, can stay "on-station" for hours because of propeller-driven aircraft instead of jets.
5. Prove air support still worthwhile.
Inchon
McArthur wants to take war to N. Korea, proposes amphibious landing at Inchon-northeast coast of S. Korea, just south of 38th parallel
2. Lots of obstacles:
a. Sea Wall instead of landing beach
b. Tides unpredictable, only 3-4 days work for landing, figures middle of month best time.
Sept. 15, 1950
Marines land in Inchon and conquer with air support. Get to Sol, take it over, get permission from Truman to take war to north
Chosin Reservoir
Where Marines gather, plan to move NW, Chinese troops surprise them and have to retreat south, destroy CHinese force on way down.
Truman pissed/he and McArthur don't like Marines retreated 75 miles.
Limited Warfare
No declaration of war, no mobilization of the masses, no ration carts, no huge sacrifices, limited goals.
Gen. Marshall
New Sec. of Def., against creation of Israel because knew ould upset Palestinians forever, supported firing McArthur.
Unlimited War
McArthur runs for president, urged U.S. making huge mistake and need unimited warfare, talking to press and bad-mouthed Truman. Should have been fired although he may have been correct in decision making.
Bradley
JCS- not in favor of unlimited war because feared China's involvement.
Changes after Korean War
1. One year rotation for soldiers.
2. Come home and have five year service liability, reserve obligation, important to Cold War.
3. 1952 B-27- first all get bomber
4. Air Force has delivery systems available for delivering atomic weapons.
5. Use of helicopters.
Ridgeway
Commander of UN Forces, worked as Lt. under Ike in WWII
1. Commands troops in Heart break Ridge.
2. Sees a need to train *Republic of Korea (ROKS)* in combat fighting .
3. Changed the way war was fought, never did what McArthur was asking to do and change aim of war, though nuclear weapons would work.
4. Completely supports Truman's idea of total integration of forces, *1947* idea came around, Korea first war blacks and whites fight side by side.
Taft, Stevenson
Rep. nominee, Dem. nominee

Ike elected 1951 as republican.
POWs
Biggest issue in negotiating end of Korean War.
1. U.S. holding over 100 K POWs, half wanted to stay in south.
2. N. Koreans holding about 100 K S. Koreans, 9500 K American POWs.
3. Only 3,800 Americans came home, 1,000 murdered, some still missing, others died of sickness.
4. Brainwashing of American POWs.
End of Korean War, 1953
1. Ike guarantees security of S.Korea forever, American troops still there.
2. Agreed to mutually secure other countries in area: Taiwan, Philippines, Australia, New Zealand.
3. War cost $40 billion, 2 million men fought, 41 K casualties
4. Commies lose 1-2 million.
5. make a commitment to France who go to war with Vientnam in 1947.
Dien Bien Phu
Shitty garrison set up by French in valley surrounded by jungle. Led by Navarre, 15 K French troops, artillery basis set up. Surrounded by 50 K Viet Minh troops led by Gen. Giap.
Goldwater
JFK's opponent, father of modern conservative movement