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51 Cards in this Set

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What is the primary focus of the esthetician?
preserving
protecting
nurishing
How should healthly skin look and feel?
slightly moist
soft
smooth
(is somewhat acidic)
What are the appendages of the skin?
hair
nails
sebaceous glands
sudoriferous glands
How much does an average person's skin weigh and approx. how many square feet is it?
weighs 8-10 LBs
approx 22 Sq Ft
How much blood does the skin hold?
1/2 to 2/3 rds
How much of the primary immune cells does the skin hold?
1/2 of the primary skin cells
What is the INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM?
Made up of the skin and its extensions. It is the largest organ in the body designed to regulate and protect.
Name several parts of the Integumentary system.
skin layers
nerves
glands
hair follicules
cells
What are the 6 functions of the skin?
protection
excretion
secretion
absorption
sensation
heat regulation
What is the acid mantle and what is it made of?
Protective barrier
Made of: sebum, lipids, sweat, and water. Also known as the hydolipidic film.
What is the barrier function?
Protective barrier of the epidermis.
Consists of the stratum corneum and intracellular cement.
Protects us from environmental irratation and water loss due to evaporation.
What does TEWL stand for?
Trans-Epidermal Water Loss
(caused by evaporation of water on the skins surface)
What are lipids?
protective oils (fats)
What is the intercellular cement?
lipid substances between corneum cells that protect them from water loss and irritation. (morter between the bricks holding it all together)
What does hydrolipidic mean?
hydor=water lipidic=oil
Hydrolipidic film (acid mantle) is the water to oil balance on the surface of the skin.
What are Langerhans cells?
"guard cells" in the skin
that recognize foreign invaders (bacteria) and call on the immune systerm to send out T-cells.
What are T-cells?
Immune cells that protect us from infection.
How does the body prevent from overheating?
the blood vessles dialate and move closer to the surface of the skin
sweat glands excrete perspiration which vaporates on the skin
How does the body warm up?
bld vessles constrict, bld flow decreases, contraction of the arrecor pili muscles cause goose bumps and shivering helps to warm us up
Sweat is excreted through what 2 places?
follicles and pores
What glad secretes sebum?
sebacious
What % water does sebum contain?
50-70%
What is the name for sweat gland?
suderiferous
Where does absorption occur in the skin?
cells
pores
follicules
Def of the epidermis
thin protective outer most layer of the skin
What are the 5 layers of the epidermis
top to bottom
stratum corneum
stratum lucidum
stratum grandulosum
stratum spinosum
stratum germinativum
Def of collagen
fibrous connective tissue made from protein and found in the reticular layer of the skin-creates firmness
Def of intracellular cement
lipid substances between the corneum cells that protect them from H2O loss and irratation
How often does our body turn-over skin cells?
approx 28 days
What % of the epidermis is dead protein cells?
95%
What is desquamation?
shedding of dead skin cells
What is the descriptive name for the stratum corneum?
"horny layer"- scale looking cells made primarily of soft keratin
Def of stratum corneum
thin waterproof permeable layer that is regenerative, detoxifying and reponds to stimuli
What are corneocyets?
protective cells made in the stratum corneum - hardened kerinocytes
What is the descriptive name for the stratum lucidum?
"clear cells" - smaller cells that let light pass... (clear keratin)
Def of stratum lucidum
layer under the stratum corneum that creates epidermal rings that form on the hands and feet
Def of keratin
fiber protein found in the skin, hair and nails
provides resiliency and protection to the skin
Def of keratinocytes
cells composed of keratin
What is the descriptive name for the stratum granulosum?
"grainy cells" cells resemble granules - they are full of keratin
Def of straum granulosum?
layer of the epidermis where cellular lipids and keratin are produced
these lipids form the skins barrier
What is the descriptive name for the stratum spinosum?
"spiny layer"
cells cont to divide and change shape... enzymes create lipids and proteins
What is the descriptive word for the statum germinativum.
"the growth layer" cell mitosis occures continuously at this layer
Def of the statum germinativum
composed of basil cellscell mitosis occurs continuously
melanocytes produce pigment granules here intracellular cement is produced here
Merkel cells (sensory cells)
touch receptors are here
What is the role of lymph vessels?
provide nurishment and remove waste
What are the 2 layers of the dermis?
papillary
reticular
Def of the dermis
live layer of connective tissue made of collagen protein and elastin fibers
provides support
How much thicker is the dermis than the epidermis?
25x's
What is contained in the dermis?
capillaries
sebaceous oil glands/sweat glands
nerves
receptors
arrector pili muscles
blood and lymph vesseles provide nurishment
Def of the papillary layer of the dermis
forms the epidermal dermal junction
Def of the reticular layer of the dermis
gives the skin strength and elasticity
comprises the base of the
hair follicles, vessles, nerve endings collagen and elastin
supplies the skin with oxygen and nutrients
Def of ground structure
fluid matrix in the dermis beneficial for hydrating
made up of hyaluronic acid and glycosamino