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449 Cards in this Set

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Define the word Anatomy?
Structure of the human body.
Stru
Define the word Physiology?
Function of the human body.
Func
How many bones are in the human body?
206
2--
Approximately how many muscles are named and recognized
640
6--
How many systems comprise the human body?
10
1-
Name the systems that comprise the human body.
Integumentary, Skeletal, Circulatory, Respiratory, Endocrine, Excretory, Nervous, Muscular, Reproductive, Digestive
I SCREEN MR D
How many vertebrae are in the spinal column of a child? Adult?
Child=33 Adult=26
How many sections are in the vertebral column?
5
Name the sections in the vertebral column
Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral, Coccyx
5
Name the number of vertebrae in each section of a child's spinal column.
7-Cervical, 12-Thoracic, 5-Lumbar, 5-Sacral, 4-Coccyx
How many types of muscle comprise the human body?
Three types
Name the types of muscle that comprise the human body.
Voluntary, Involuntary, and Cardiac
What is the largest muscle in the human body?
Gluteus Maximus
butt
What is the longest muscle in the human body?
Sartorius
tailors muscle
What is the meaning of the word insertion as it applies to muscles?
Point of most moveable attachment
What is the meaning of the word origin as it applies to muscles?
Point of most fixed attachment
What is a tendon?
Strong Band of connective tissue that ends at the end of a muscle mass in most cases
What is a ligament?
Strong band of connective tissue that wraps around joints in most cases
What does a tendon do primarily?
Attaches muscle to muscle or muscle to bone in most cases
What does a ligament do primarily?
Attaches bone to bone in most cases.
What is the longest and strongest bone in the human body?
Femur
What are the three main divisions of the human body?
Head, Trunk and extremities
Name the types of bones in the human body?
Long, Short, Flat, and irregular
What are the purposes of the skeletal system?
Protection, support, movement, mineral reservoir, and hemopoiesis
Give a short description of the human heart.
Size of a man's fist, pear-shaped, 2/3 on left side of thoracic cavity, 1/3 on the right side of thoracic cavity, pumps blood throughout the body.
In what direction is massage applied?
toward the heart
Why is it applied in this direction?
for the purpose of moving fluids, primarily blood towards the heart.
Define Effleurage.
Long, smooth strokes toward the heart for the purpose of stimulating circulation and softening tissue.
Define Petrissage.
Deeper, usually circular strokes, for the purpose of stimulating circulation and softening tissue.
Name the strokes under the heading of petrissage.
Kneading, rolling, wringing, fulling, and friction
Define Tapotment.
Rhythmic, blow-like contacts to the body of the client for the purpose of stimulating circulation and softening tissue.
Name the strokes under the heading of tapotment.
Hacking, cupping, percussion, tapping, and vibration.
Define and describe Nerve Strokes.
Long, smooth, barely touching strokes away from the heart
What is the purpose of Nerve Strokes.
to relax the client and remove excess electrical energy.
What does atrophied mean?
Wasted away.
What is the largest nerve in the human body?
Sciatic nerve
Define the appendicular skeleton.
126 bones, forming the appendages on the skeleton, arms, legs, hip and shoulder girdles.
Define the axial skeleton.
80 bones, forming the upright axis of the body, including 6 tiny ear bones.
How many pair of ribs are in the human body?
12 pair
How many pair of ribs are called "floating ribs"?
2 pair
Why are the "floating ribs" called "floating ribs"?
Because they do not attach to the sternum.
What is the tip of the sternum called?
The Xiphoid process, or ensiform
Name the other two parts of the sternum.
Manubrium, and gladiolus(body)
Give the definition of a cell.
Smallest unit capable of maintaining life and reproducing
What is the shaft of a bone called?
Diaphysis
What is the end of a bone called?
Epiphysis
What is the iliotibial tract and where is it located?
A band of connective tissue that runs from the ilium to the tibia on the lateral thigh
Name the meninges and define their names.
Dura-mater = tough mother
Pia-mater = soft mother
Arachnoid = web-like
What is a neuron?
Nerve cell
What is a synapse?
Point of potential contact between adjacent neurons.
What is the peristalsis and where do you find it in the human body?
Wavelike movement in the hollow tubes in the body to move food and waste.
Trace a drop of blood through the body beginnning and ending at the Superior and Inferior Vena Cava.
S&I Vena Cava, Right Atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary, artery, lungs, pulmonary veins, left atrium, left ventricle, aorta, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins, S&I Vena Cava
Define hyperthermia
Fever
Define hypothermia.
sub-normal temperature
Define apnea
temporary cessation of breathing
Define dyspnea
difficult breathing
Define eupnea
normal respirations
Define hypoxia
Insufficient oxygen at the cellular level
Trace a route of food from the mouth to the anus.
mouth, esophagus, cardiac sphincter, stomach, pyloric valve, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ileocecal valve, Ascending colon, Hepatic flexure, Transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anus.
Describe the hyoid bone and give its location and function.
Horse-shoe shaped bone in the throat at the base of the tongue, anchors the tongue.
What is the fluid called that lubricates the joints?
Synovial fluid
What is periosteum?
Investing membrane on a long bone.
What does ossificaton mean?
bone formation.
What is a fontanel?
Soft spot on the infants skull.
Who is considered the, "father of swedish massage"?
Per Henrich Ling, or Peter Ling
Which dicection do yo umasage when massaging the colong?
Clockwise
Why do you massage clockwise when you massage the colon?
to move contents in the prober direction.
What are the small hair-like prjections in the small intestine called?
Intestinal villi
What do intestinal villi do?
absorb nutrients from food for use by the body.
What is the principal muscle of respiration?
Diaphragm
What is the largest artery in the human body?
Aorta
What is the alimentary canal?
Food tube from the mouth to the anus.
What is a bone suture?
It is considered an immovable joint in the skull between bony plates of the skull.
What massage stroke is applied at the beginning and the end of each body part?
Effluerage
Why is Effluerage applied at the beginning and the end of each body part?
to move fluids that the other strokes have stimulated, to the surface.
What do afferent nerves do?
Carry messages from the body to the brain
What do efferent nerves do?
Carry messages from the brain to the body
Name the threee parts that make up the pelvis.
Ilium, ischium, and pubis
What is adipose tissue?
Fat
What is an erythrocyte and what does it do?
red blood cell, carries nutrients and oxygen to the cells and waste away.
What is a leukocyte and what does it do?
white blood cell, fights fights infection.
What is a platelet and what does it do?
Element in blood that aids in clotting.
How much blood is in the average human body?
12 pints, or 6 liters
Name the five organs of elimination and give an example of the waste eliminated in each.
kidney=urine, intestine=feces, lungs=carbon monoxide, liver=bile, skin=sweat
kills
Name the three abnormal curvatures of the spine and describe.
Kyphosis=hunchback, Lordosis=swayback
scoliosis= lateral curvature of the spine
What is the pyloric valve, where is it located and what does it do?
Valve in the bottom o the stomach that allows passage of food into the duodenum.
Where in the spinal column does the spinal cord end?
between the 1st and 2nd lumbar vertebrae
What is the name of the opening in the skull through which the spinal cord passes?
foramen magnum
What is the lower jawbone called?
Mandible
What is the upper jawbone called?
Maxilla
What is hemopoieses
blood cell formation
What is homeostasis?
State of body equilibrium, or internal balance
What is cancellous bone?
Spongy, inner bone
What is compact bone?
Hard, dense outer bone
What is the acetabulum?
hip socket
What is the Os Coxae?
Hipbone
What is the patella?
Kneecap
Why is the patella unique?
Larges sesamoid bone in the body and acts as a doorstop for the knee joint
What does abduction mean?
move away from the body
What does adduction mean?
move toward the body
What does flexion mean?
Bending movement that decreases the angle of the joint
What does extension mean?
Straightening movement that increases the angle of the joint
What does retraction meant?
move backward
What does protraction mean?
move forward
What does circumduction mean?
Move so the distal end of the part describes a circle, while the rest of the part describes a cone.
What is hemopoieses
blood cell formation
What is homeostasis?
State of body equilibrium, or internal balance
What is cancellous bone?
Spongy, inner bone
What is compact bone?
Hard, dense outer bone
What is the acetabulum?
hip socket
What is the Os Coxae?
Hipbone
What is the patella?
Kneecap
Why is the patella unique?
Larges sesamoid bone in the body and acts as a doorstop for the knee joint
What does abduction mean?
move away from the body
What does adduction mean?
move toward the body
What does flexion mean?
Bending movement that decreases the angle of the joint
What does extension mean?
Straightening movement that increases the angle of the joint
What does retraction meant?
move backward
What does protraction mean?
move forward
What does circumduction mean?
Move so the distal end of the part describes a circle, while the rest of the part describes a cone.
What does rotation mean?
turning on its own axis
what does supination mean?
Move palm or part upward or forward
What does pronation mean?
move palm or part downward or backward
What does inferior mean?
any point below any other given point
What does superior mean?
Any point above any other given point
What does proximal mean?
Toward the origin of a structure
What does distal mean?
Away from the origin of a structure
What does lateral mean?
toward the side
What does medial mean?
toward the midline or middle
What does anterior mean?
In front of or toward the front
What does posterior mean?
in back of or toward the back
What is the transverse plane?
A plane that runs through the middle, dividing the body into upper and lower parts.
What is the coronal plane?
A plane running through the body or any of tis parts dividing the body or any of its parts into anterior and posterior portions.
What is the anatomical position?
Standing erect with arms at sides palms forward
Name the three kinds of joints according to their possible degree of movement
Diarthroses=freely moveable, Amphiarthroses=slightly moveable, Synarthroses=immovable
What is a bursae?
A fibrous sac linew with synovial membrane and containing synovial fluid to lubricate joint area.
Name the only bone in the body that does not articulate with any other bone in the body.
Hyoid
Name at least thre contraindications to massage.
Blood clots, tumors, unexplained skin rashes, first three days of menstruations over abdomen, pregnancy, cancer, etc.
As a massage therapist, name three thingsd we never do.
Diagnose, Prescribe, claim to treat.
Give me the official definition of Swedish Massage.
Manipulation of soft tissue for therapeutic purposes
What essential oil, rich in menthol, should never be applied to the neck and throat area of children under age of 30 months?
Peppermint Oil
What group of essential oils, if applied to the skin and exposed to direct sunlight or UV rays within 3 to 4 days of use, may cause a rash or dark skin pigmentation?
Citrus oils
Epileptics and those with high blood pressure should avoid these three essential oils
hyssop, fennel, idaho tansy
If an essential oil is causing discomfort or skin irritation or comes in contact with the eyes what can one use to dilute the essential oils or apply to the skin?
Pure vegetable oil.
Who was Per henrich Ling?
Swedish fencing master that first put Swedish massage into a form to be used and taught effectively. He also named the strokes and started the first school.
What was the date of the establishment of the first school of Swedish massage?
1813
Why is a lubricant used when giving Swedish Massage?
To avoid irritating the skin of the client.
What are the exercises called that are given with Swedish Massage?
Remedial exercises or medical gymnastics
What are the movements called when the client does not assist or resist?
Passive
What are the movements called when the client does assist or resist?
Active
Define hydrotherapy.
Water therapy
Name the three forms in which hydrotherapy is applied.
liquid (water, solid (ice), gaseous (steam)
What does phagocytosis mean?
cell eating
What does pinocytosis mean?
cell drinking
What is the name of the bath in which the hips and pelvic regions are immersed?
Sitz bath
What two things determine the physiciological effects produced by water application?
temperature and duration
A saline bath should be taken hotter or colder than an ordinary bath?
colder
Why should a saline bath be taken colder than an ordinary bath?
Because the salt crystals retain heat and can tend to burn the client.
Name three causes of constipation.
Insufficient bulk, insufficient exercise, insufficient water, improper digestion
What is a nephron?
structural and functional unit of a kidney
In the metabolic brfeakdown process of food carbohydrates are broken down into what?
glucose
What acid is produced by muscular activity?
Lactic Acid
What gland is known as the "master gland"?
pituitary gland
Why is the pituitary gland called the "master gland"?
Because it produces hormones tha activate the other glands
How many pari of spinal nerves are in the human body?
31 pair
Is it true that digestion begins in the mouth?
yes
Is it more nearly true that you are what you eat, or that you are what you are able to digest and assimilate?
what you are able to digest and assimilate.
What organ in the body produces insulin
the isle of langerhans in the pancreas
What is the function of the gall bladder?
Stores bile from the liver.
Essential oils containing a high percentage of the chemical constituant ____ has the ability to cross the blood/brain barrier.
Sesquiterpene
Name two essential oils that contain a high percentage of this chemical constituent
Cedarwood, Sandalwood
What muscle is known as the "Tailor's muscle"?
Sartorius
Why is the "tailor's muscle" referred to in this way?
Because a tailor must sit in a cross legged fashion to hem a garment which requires a flexible sartorius muscle
What should you do if a client complains of discomfort during a Swedish Massage?
Stop! Discuss the problem and then proceed in a less offensive manner.
What position should your clients knees be in during a swedish massage of the abdominal area?
Flexed
What is the system that activates the muscular function?
Nervous System
Name the gluteal muscle closest to the surface.
Gluteus maximus
Name the superior vein carrying blood back to the heart.
Superior vena cava
Name the inferior veing carrying blood back to the hea heart.
Inferior vena cava
If the following person were lying unconscious what pulse would you check first. adult? infant?
carotid, brachial
Name two results that can be obtained by a therapist using ice during a Swedish Massage.
Reduced Pain and Swelling
Name the circulatory system fat enters after absorption in the duodenum
Lymphatic System
What two vitamins are depleted through stress?
B and C
What is the "True Pelvis"?
Sapce below the pelvic brim
What is the "False Pelvis"?
Space above the pelvic brim
Name the two tubes that lead from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
Ureters
Name the tuebe that leads from the urinary bladder to the exterior of the body.
Urethra
Name the bone at the base of the skull.
Occipital ridge
Enlargements of the veins in the anal canal are called what/
Hemmorhoids
What is a sphincter?
Circular muscle that closes an orifice
Name the two sacs in the thoracic cavity, in connection with the lungs.
Parietal and visceral pleura
Which one lines the wall of the cavity and which one covers the lungs?
Parietal pleura lines the walls, visceral pleura covers the lungs
Which lung has three lobes?
Right
Is it true that all systems are influenced by massage?
Yes
Ho are all systems influenced by massage?
By increasing circulation and elimination of toxins, toning the muscles and relaxing the body, every system is influenced.
What are the main functions of the thyroid gland?
Produces hormones tha stimulates growth and regulates metabolism
Pregnant women should consult their health care professional before using essential oils containing the chemical constituents with hormone-like activity, such as ....
Clary Sage, Sage, Idaho Tansy, Juniper, and Fennel
What type of oil do we use for infant's massage?
Expeller pressed or cold pressed oil
What two things do we need to avoid in the massage oils for infants?
No perfume, mineral oil.
What are the main functions of the parathyroid gland?
Promotes consistency of blood calcium levels by assisting calcium absorption
QWhat does metabolism mean?
Sum total of all chemical and physical changes that take place to change food into useable or storable substances by the body
What does anabolism mean?
Building up of body substance
What does catabolism mean?
Tearing down of body substance
Which blood vessel in the body has the highest percentage of oxygen
pulmonary vein
The average duration of a swedish massage is how long?
40-45 minutes
List at least five beneficial effects of Swedish Massage.
Tones muscles, improves circulation, increases the number of useablered blood cells, improves lymph activity, replaces exercise, helps remove toxins, improves mental-emotional outlook, helps with bone repair and strengthening, reduces swelling in joints and inflammation, provieds relaxation for the client.
What are the two most important things to remember about Swedish Massage
The physiological effects of the movements and the contraindications
What is used to differentiate between the amateur and professional massage therapist?
The knowledge of when not to massage
When picking a massage lotion, what three things should you keep in mind?
Consistency, aroma, and not to use mineral oil
What are the cells called that cover the outer surface of the body?
Epithelial cells
What is a neurotransmitter and what does it do?
Chemical released by neurons to facilitate or block transmission of nerve impulses
What are two main divisions of the nervous system?
CNS (central nervous system-brain and spinal cord) PNS (peripheral nervous system-all other nerves in the body outside of the brain and spinal cord)
How much does the average brain weigh?
3 pounds
What are the main functions of the cerebrum?
Perception, communication, memory, understanding, appreciation, and voluntary movements.
What are the main functions of the cerevellum?
Equilibrium, posture, and coordinated movements
What chamber of the heart is called the pump?
left ventricle
Q
What muscle group is called the Hamstrings? Name them
Posterior thigh= biceps femoris, simtendinosus, semimembranosus
What muscle group is called the Quadriceps? Name them.
Anterior thigh= Rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedialis
What is the "sagittal plane"?
A longitudinal plane that divides the body or any of its parts into right and left portions.
What is the "mid-sagittal plane"?
A longitudinal plane that divides the body into right and left portions through the midline or median line
On what parts of the body would you use "filling"?
The large parts, torso and thigh.
ON what parts of the body would you use "vibration"?
Around the colon and on either side of the vertebral column
In the metabolic breakdown process of food, protien is broken down into what?
Amino acids
In the metabolic breakdown process of food, fat is broken down into what?
fatty acids
What are the arrector pili muscles?
Tiny muscles that raise the hairs on the boyd and produce what we call "goose bumps"
Define "bolus".
A rounded mass of food prepared by the mouth for swallowing
What is fibrinogen?
A blood protein that is converted to fiber during blood clotting.
Explain the "rule of nines"
A way of estimating the percentage of body surface burned by allotting numbers to each possible area.
What are the glands in the skin that help maintain proper body temperature?
Eccrine glands
What are adenoids?
Lymph glands that protect the body from pathogens at the back of the nose.
What are sudorific glands?
Sweat glands
What are sebaceous glands?
Oil glands
How many pair of crainal nerves are there?
12 pair
List the cranial nerves in proper order and give their functions.
Olfactory=smell, Optic=sight, Oculomotor=eye movement, Trochlear=eye movement, Trigeminal=chewing, Abducens= abducts eye, Facial= facial expressions, vestibulocochlear (Acoustics)= hearing and balance, Glossopharyngeal=swallowing, Vagus=Organ movement, Spinal Accessory=shoulder movements, Hypoglossal=swallowing
Why is it important to cover each part of the body after you have massaged that part?
To prevent chilling and maintain modesty
What minerals are specific for proper muscle strenght and tone?
Calcium, magnesium, manganese, and potassium
What vitamins seem to be most supportive of the heart muscle
Vitamin E, B-15 and Coenzyme Q-10
What is the function of a mitochondria?
Power plant in a cell
What is an aponeurosis?
Membranous sheet connecting a muscle and the part it moves
What is the sac of membrane called that encloses the heart?
Pericardium
What is the sac of membrane called that encloses the heart?
Pericardium
Name the three sections that make up the small intestine.
Duodenum, jejenum, ileum
Name the five principal strokes of Swedish Massage.
effleurage, petrissage, tapotment, vibration, and nerve strokes
What is meant by the term "oxygen debt"?
The amount of oxygen required after exercise to oxidize the lactic acid formed.
What is a thrombus?
Blood clot
What is an ulcer?
Lesion or erosion of the mucous membrane
What does the term "masso" mean?
I knead
What is the name of the artery that allows you te feel a pulse at the wrist?
radial artery
What is the name of the body organ that stores blood and releases it in case of emergency?
Spleen
What is the type of anemia that is caused by a deficiency of red blood cells due to a lack of vitamin B-12
Pernicious Anemia
What is the name of the system that is made up of skin, hair, and nails?
Integumentary System
What is the water called that is located in the blood vessels?
Plasma
What connects the middle ear to the throat?
Eustachian tube
What are the three primary functions of the muscular system?
Movement, posture, heat production
What is referred to as the "building blocks" of protien molecules?
Amino acids
The S-shaped portion of the colon is called what?
Sigmoid colon
Name the three kinds of processing that food must undergo in the body?
Metabolism, Anabolism, Catabolism
What does the enzyme amylase do?
Digest starch
What is a bowman's capsule?
End of the renal tubule, also called glomerular capsule
What is an electrolyte?
Chemical substances in water that are capable of conducting an electrical charge
What is a zygote?
Fertilized egg
What is the water called that is located inside the cells?
intracellular fluid
What is the water called that is located in the spaces between the cells?
interstitial fluid
Explain the differences between infrared rasys and ultraviolet rays?
Infrared rays are heating rays, ultraviolet rays cause chemical changes in the body
What is the largest organ in the humany body?
Skin=outside, liver=inside
What is a goiter?
An enlargement of the thyroid gland due to insuficient iodine
What does centripetal mean?
toward the center
Give the immediate effects of cold applications?
Constricts blood vessels, reduces pain and swelling
What is the sac of membrane called that encloses the heart?
Pericardium
Name the three sections that make up the small intestine.
Duodenum, jejenum, ileum
Name the five principal strokes of Swedish Massage.
effleurage, petrissage, tapotment, vibration, and nerve strokes
What is meant by the term "oxygen debt"?
The amount of oxygen required after exercise to oxidize the lactic acid formed.
What is a thrombus?
Blood clot
What is an ulcer?
Lesion or erosion of the mucous membrane
What does the term "masso" mean?
I knead
What is the name of the artery that allows you te feel a pulse at the wrist?
radial artery
What is the name of the body organ that stores blood and releases it in case of emergency?
Spleen
What is the type of anemia that is caused by a deficiency of red blood cells due to a lack of vitamin B-12
Pernicious Anemia
What is the name of the system that is made up of skin, hair, and nails?
Integumentary System
What is the water called that is located in the blood vessels?
Plasma
What connects the middle ear to the throat?
Eustachian tube
What are the three primary functions of the muscular system?
Movement, posture, heat production
What is referred to as the "building blocks" of protien molecules?
Amino acids
The S-shaped portion of the colon is called what?
Sigmoid colon
Name the three kinds of processing that food must undergo in the body?
Metabolism, Anabolism, Catabolism
What does the enzyme amylase do?
Digest starch
What is a bowman's capsule?
End of the renal tubule, also called glomerular capsule
What is an electrolyte?
Chemical substances in water that are capable of conducting an electrical charge
What is a zygote?
Fertilized egg
What is the water called that is located inside the cells?
intracellular fluid
What is the water called that is located in the spaces between the cells?
interstitial fluid
Explain the differences between infrared rasys and ultraviolet rays?
Infrared rays are heating rays, ultraviolet rays cause chemical changes in the body
What is the largest organ in the humany body?
Skin=outside, liver=inside
What is a goiter?
An enlargement of the thyroid gland due to insuficient iodine
What does centripetal mean?
toward the center
Give the immediate effects of cold applications?
Constricts blood vessels, reduces pain and swelling
Give the long term effcts of cold applications
improved circulation, excites cellular activity
Give the immediat effects of hot applications.
expands blood vessles, may cause redness to some skin types
Give the long term effects of hot applications.
Bood sent back to interior, Edema produced
What is pleurisy?
inflammation of the pleural lining of the lungs.
Give a definition of a lymph node
small lymphatic organ that filters lymph
What are T cells?
Lymphocytes that have undergone their first stage of development in the thymus gland
What are memory cells?
B cells that act to recognize antigens they have been exposed to. Produces antibodies for defense.
When we say calcaneal what are of the body are we referring to?
heel
When we say plantar, what area of the body are we referring to?
sole
When we say lumbar, what area of the body are we referring to?
Loin
When we say sacral, what area of the body are we referring to?
Between hips
When we say vertebral, waht area of the body are we referring to?
spinal column
What is a keloid?
Excessive scar tissue
Define Jaundice
a yellowish skin discoloration that occurs when excessive amounts of bile are absorbed into the blood
What is the epiglottis?
A flap of cartilage that covers the opening into the larynx that closes upon swallowing to block food from entering the trachea
What are bronchi?
Subdivisions of the windpipe that lead to the lungs
What is the pharynx?
the throat
What is the trachea?
windpipe
Define chyme.
A semisolid mixture that is in the stomach after food mixes with digestive juices
What are the main functions of the lymph?
To cleanse the body at the cellular level, promote defense and transport nutrients across the transient stretch
What is considered the percentages of oxygen, nitrogen, and other gases in the air we breath?
79% nitrogen and other gases, 21% oxygen
`
IS this still true?
No, we are down to 19% oxygen and 81% nitrogen and other gases
What are the main functions of the small intestine?
Aids in digestion, and absorbs nutrients and water from food
How long is the small intestine?
Approximately 20 feet
What are the main functions of the large intestine or colon?
Absorbs remaining liquid and eliminates waste
What is the purpose and result of alternating hot and cold applications?
causes a flushing effect
List for contraindications of heat treatment?
fever, high blood pressure, low blood pressure, hemorrhage, debilitating disease
What is systolic pressure and how is it determined?
it is the first sound you hear with your b/p cuff and stethoscope. It indicates pressure generated by the left ventricle during contraction.
What is diastolic pressure and how is it determined?
it is the last sound you hear with your b/p cuff and stethoscope, it indicates the relaxation stage.
If endocrine glands are "ductless", how do hormones reach their target organ cells?
through the bloodstream
What is a hormone and what does it do?
Chemical messengers to regulate specific body funtions
What does the word sublingual mean?
under the tongue
What are some of the questions a therapist asks a new client?
contact lenses, blood clots, tumors, pregnancy, medications, under a Dr's care, surgeries, injuries, period
What is the partition called that divides the heart into left and right sides
cardiac septum
What is the name of the valve that connects the small and large intestines?
ileocecal valve
Why do veins have valves in them?
to prevent backflow of blood
What are peripheral nerves?
All nerves outside the brain and spinal cord
What is the haversion system?
Structural unit of compact bone
How long is the large intestine of colon?
Approximately 6 feet
What is an anastomosis?
A union or joining of blood vessels or other tubular structures?
What is an aneurysm?
A weak place in the wall of a blood vessel
What is a hernia?
A weakened area in a muscle wall allowing abnormal protrusion of a body part
What does subcutaneous mean?
Under the skin
What does vasoconstriction mean?
narrowing of blood vessels
What does vasodilation mean?
Dilation of blood vessels
What is deoxyribonucleic acid?
a nucleic acid found in all living cells carrying the hereditary information
What is ribonucleic acid?
Nucleic acid that acts in protien syntheses
What does encephalitis mean?
inflammation of the brain
What does endocarditis mean?
inflammation of the heart
What is the function of the intervertebral discs?
to act as cushions for the spinal column
List three important differences between the male and female skeleton
Male skeleton is heavier, femal skeleton is broader, male has a deeper pelvic cavity, femal acetabulum is smaller and farther apart
What is the name of the bones you sit on
Ischium
What is a prime mover?
Muscle that has the responsibitility for a particular movement
What is a synergist?
Muscle that aids the action of the prime mover
What is an antagonist?
Muscle that reverses or opposes the action of another muscle.
What tissue is responsible for body movement
muscle tissue
Define tissue
a group of similar cells that perform a specific function
What is a symphysis?
A joint in which the bones are connected by fibrocartilage
What are alpha brain waves?
Electrical activity of the brain that is slow, synchronous. The brain is in a state of calm, relaxed wakeful
What are beta brain waves?
Rhythmic, more irregular, higher frequency. Mentally alert and concentrating
What are theta brain waves?
Still more irregular, very slow sleep state
What are delta brain waves
very slow deep sleep, no dreams, like anesthesia
What is REM sleep?
Rapid eye movement, when dreaming occurs. Much oxygen to the brain
What is a nerve plexus?
A group of intertwined nerves.
What is a pressure point?
Where major blood vessel crosses a bone close to the body surface.
What % of communication is transmitted verbally? What % of communication is transmitted non-verbally.
verbal=1/3, non-verbal=2/3
Name three health conditions that can arise from chronic stress.
Heart disease, heart attack, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, hypertension, depression, digestive problems, muscle tension, migranes, bruxism
What is an EEG? What does it show?
Electroencephalogram, records brain activity
What is osteoarthritis?
An autoimmune disease, when the body attempts to destroy its own tissues, Chronic imflammation, stress and genetic factors seem to be involved but a virus is suspected.
Where are the frontal sinuses located?
Above the eye at the medial line
Where are the ethmoid sinuses located?
Corner of the eye
Where are the sphenoid sinuses located?
corner of eyes,lower than ethmoid
Where are the maxillary sinuses located?
Cheekbone area
What are all of the sinuses called collectively?
Paranasal sinuses
What does osteomalacia mean?
soft bones
What does osteoporosis mean?
porous bones
What age group usually gets osteomalacia?
children (rickets)
What age group usually has osteoporosis
post menopausal women
What does hydrophilic mean?
Water loving
What does hydrophobic mean
water hating, or water fearing
When we say antebrachial, what area of the body are we referring to?
forearm
When we say antecubital, what area of the body are we referring to?
front of elbow
When we say acromial, what area of the body are we referring to?
point of shoulder
When we say inguinal, what area of the body are we referring to?
Groin
When we saybrachial, what area of the body are we referring to?
arm
When we say occipital, what area of the body are we referring to?
base of skull
When we say cephalic, what area of the body are we referring to?
head
When we say mammary, what area of the body are we referring to?
breast
When we say axillary, what area of the body are we referring to?
armpit
when we say cervical, what area of the body are we referring to?
neck
When we say orbital, what area of the body are we referring to?
eye
What is knows at the "band-aid" plant?
plantain
In what way is it best to take herbs?
Daily in foods
What is the best form to take your herbs?
raw, fresh, or wildcrafted
Describe two ways manufactures produce low quality oils?
high temperature, and adding synthetics
Essential oils are made of the sam 3 elements humans are made of. Name the 3 elements.
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
When we say, buccal, what area of the body are we referring to?
cheek
q
When we say oral, what area of the body are we referring to?
mouth
When we say mental, what area of the body are we referring to?
chin
When we say dorsal, what area of the body are we referring to?
back
When we say olecranal, what area of the body are we referring to?
back of elbow
When we say sternal, what area of the body are we referring to?
thumb
When we say hallux, what area of the body are we referring to?
great toe
When we say popliteal, what area of the body are we referring to?
back of knee
When we say perineal, what area of the body are we referring to?
Region between anus and external genitalia
When we say pubic, what area of the body are we referring to?
genital region
When we say digital, what area of the body are we referring to?
palm
When we say abdominal, what area of the body are we referring to?
Abdomen
When we say nasal, what area of the body are we referring to?
nose
When we say frontal, what area of the body are we referring to?
forehead
When we say carpal, what area of the body are we referring to?
Wrist
When we say thoracic, what area of the body are we referring to?
Chest
When we say umbilical, what area of the body are we referring to?
navel
When we say coxal, what area of the body are we referring to?
hip
When we say patellar, what area of the body are we referring to?
anterior knee
When we say tarsal, what area of the body are we referring to?
ankle
When we say crural, what area of the body are we referring to?
leg
When we say femoral, what area of the body are we referring to?
thigh
When we saysural, what area of the body are we referring to?
calf
In traditional Chinese medicine, what are the pathways called that carry energy through the body?
Meridians
What is the translation of the Japanese word, Shiatsu?
Finger pressure
Define the specific goals of pre-event sports massage
Help muscles work longer and more efficiently, increase circulation, reduce muscle tension, increase flexibility of tight muscle groups
Define the specific goals of post-event sports massage?
Provide, general relaxation and relief for exhaustion, relax tight muscles and muscle groups, relieve cramps, reduce recuperation time, improve circulation and removal of toxins
What is the main difference between "baby's first massage" and "infant massage"?
in "babys first massage" the strokes are from the head down, in "infant massage" the strokes are both ways.
Why do we ask permission of the infant before we give them a massage?
to show respect for the infant
What is the main purpose of containment
to calm the baby
What is the physiological benefit of "baby's first massage"?
Activates paraympathetic nervous system
What are the two main types of massage used on infants/babies?
"babys first massage" and "infant massage"
What purpose does cephla-caudal stroking serve?
calms the parasympathetic nervous system.
Who developed "infant massage"?
Vimala McClure (Schneider)
What is teh basic language and building block for baby's relationship with others?
touch
What is the main purpose of baby and infant massage?
bonding
What area of the body do we not lubricate in infant massage?
face
What is the most potent cue of disengagemetn?
eye aversion
How many minutes should pass before giving a massage to a baby after bottle feeding?
30 minutes
How many minutes should pass before giving a massage to a baby after breast feeding?
Can massage immediately
When do you stop massaging a baby/infant?
When you receive 2 potent disengagement signals in a row.
What is one position to create balance in the parasympathetic nervous system?
Possible answers: nesting, swaddling, place in prone, side laying position, provide trunk and extremity flexion, bring hand to mouth and face
List three things that touch can aid in healing.
Possible answers: pain control, back and neck pain, anxiety and depression, fractures and wounds, high blood pressure, heart and lung disease, post surgical trauma, headaches and migraines, diabetes, acute and chronic inflamation, chronic lymphedema, nausea, muscle spasm, grand mal epileptic seizures, insomnia, psychoemotional stress, cancer, arthritis, chronic fatigue
List three false assumptions people can have about pain.
Possible answers: this pain is terrible, I am being punished by God, I can have a normal life, I can't stop thinking about this pain, if I was a better person I would not be having this problem, I'm better off dead, this isn't fair.
Lis three things in life that might be changed by pain.
Possible answers: sleep, eating, fatigue, recreational activities, work activities
Touch is important to the mother and father of a stillborn infant. If they are not allowed to touch their baby, what are three of the five things they may think or say?
Possible answers: I did not get to touch my baby, I did not get to hold my baby, I did not get to say goodbye to my baby, I did not get to take any pictures of my baby, I did not get to rock my baby.
During seated massage give me three key components to check to be sure the client is properly seated
face is evenly supported by the face rest, the arms are in the flexed position on the arm rest, bottom is properly positioned on the seat rest
What are the rules of proper hacking and cupping on the back of your client during seated massage?
Hands must be held in vertical position, no hacking or cupping over the kidney areas, no hacking or cupping over the spinous area.
If "aroma-therapy" during your seated massage how should it be presented?
the client should be allowed to make the choice of what to have or to have none at all.
If the client wantes to use aroma-therapy during their seated massage what two types of oils should the therapist have available?
Invigorating:(peppermint, cinnamon, orange etc.)Calming:(lavender, chamomile, geranium etc.)
If the client wants to use aroma-therapy during their seated massage, how should it be offered?
Do not apply the oils to the body of the client, in this instance; allow them to smell the oil on a disposable item.
What is the major reason for the popularity of "seated massage"?
Because the client is not required to disrobe.
What are the major values of seated massage?
It gives timid clients an opportunity to experience massage in a non threatening environment. Allows employees, in the work place, much needed stress relief, wonderful marketing tool for therapists to broaden their work base.
What does biceps mean in latin?
two heads
What are the sit muscles?
Supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor
What does latissimus and dorsi mean in latin?
latissimus means widest, dorsi means back.
Name the largest and deepest adductor of the hip
adductor magnus