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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
two functions of integumentary system
body protection
external support
four functions - urinary system
blood filtration
blood volume maintenance
blood chemical composition maintenance
removal of waste from body
function of respiratory system
gaseous exch: environment - blood
nervous system - purpose
control/regulation: body systems
circulatory system purpose
transport of life-sustaining materials to body cells, removal of wastes from cells.
female reproductive system purpose
-produce: female sex cells + female hormones.
-sperm receptacle
-ovum fertilization + implantation site
-foetus development + delivery.
eye region
ear region
applying fingers with firm pressure to feel landmarks, lumps, tenderspots, pulsations.
aids in locating excess fluids or abnormalities in organs: tapping sharply on various locations of thorax or abdomen to detect resonation.
leg areas
gall bladder
portions of liver
portions of r. kidney
contents epigastric
portion - stomach
portion - duodenum
contents l.hypochondriac
splenic flexure of colon
small intestine portions
portion l. kidney
r. lateral contents
portions right kidney
portion small intestine
portion cecum
portion ascending colon
hepatic flexure
umbilical contents
ileum, jejunum, duodenum, major abdominal vessels.
left lateral contents
descending colon,
portions small intestine,
portion left kidney
right inguinal contents
portions cecum,
portion small intestine
hypogastric contents
urinary bladder,
portions small intestine
sigmoid colon
left inguinal
portions small intestine
portions sigmoid colon,
descending colon
organs within coelum called
visceral organs or viscera
cavities around lungs
cavity around heart
two types of body membranes
serous and mucous
mucous membranes - what, where, and why?
secrete sticky mucous fluid.
found where cavities/tubes enter/leave body.
lubricates & protects organ where located.
serous membrane shere, what, why?
lines thoracic/abdominopelvic cavities
secretes watery lubricant: serous fluid.
line/cover/protect organs.
pleural membranes, pericardial membrane
support stomach, store fat, cushion and protect abdomenal viscera (organs)
serous membranes that adhere to outside of organs
visceral membranes
serous membranes that adhere to inside of a cavity
usually "parietal"... (not visceral.
eg: parietal pericardium, parietal pleura (lines thoracic wall, whereas visceral pleura cover the lungs themselves.)
double fold of peritoneum (abdominal serous membrane)- connect parietal to visceral.
skeletal muscle
striated. cylindrical fibres. voluntary. (somatic innervation). many nuclei per cell.
cardiac muscle.
intercalated discs (allow communication between cells.) striated. involuntary. (autonomic innervation). branched fibres, single nucleus. involuntary contraction.
smooth muscle
elongated, spindle-shaped fibres. single nucleus, autonomic, nonvoluntary contraction. around internal organs/vessels.
two types of bone tissue
cancellous (spongy) and compact (dense)
greenstick fracture
ends of bone don't actually separate.
usually in young people: more organic matter in bones (not as brittle)
periosteum tissue type
dense fibrous tissue
what are the layers of bone called just inside the periosteum
external circumferential lamellae
another name for a haversian system
horizontal canals through bone (larger ones)
perforating canals
long bone functions
levers (i.e. bones of upper and lower extremities)
short bone functions
transfer forces of movement - found in wrist/ankle. Somewhat cube-shaped
another name for short bone
flat bone function
muscle attachment or protection of organs - cranial bones, bones of os coxae.
irregular bones function
articulation and muscle attachment, i.e. vertebrae
name the six fontanels
anterior and posterior fontanels, anterolateral fontanels, anteroposterior fontanels.
fontanel structure and function
fibrous connective tissue membranes.
cover gaps in skull during maturation.
permit skull to undergo moulding and shape changes during parturition.
- accommodate rapid brain growth.
ossify by 24 mos.
what are the shapes and sizes of the fontanels
anterior and posterior: both diamond shaped, anterior largest. All others smaller, irregularily shaped.
endochondral ossification
chondrocytes first form hyaline cartilagenous bone model, inorganic salts placed, cartilage calcifies. osteoblasts arrive, growth happens in growth centres at cartilage plate until fully grown, then line ossifies.
intramembranous ossification
mesenchyme fibrous membrane turns directly into bone when osteoblasts arrive and cluster. one growth centre, enlarges at periphery until adult size. (skull bones)