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41 Cards in this Set

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What are the main subfiels in anthopology?
physical anthropology, archeology, cultural anthropolgy, anthropological linguistics, and applied anthropology.
Physical anthropology
biological enolution of homo sapiens; physical variation among human populations; comparisons of human anatomy and behavior with other primate species.
archeology
changes in human cultures over very long time spans by excavating sites, to reconstruct human prehistory and supplement written historial documents
cultural anthropology
differences and similarities in contemporary and historically recent cultures, investigated through intensive fieldwork and careful comparisons.
anthropological linguistics
general relation beween language and culture; role of language and speaking in cultural and social life and specific peoples; how language shapes cognition and thought
applied anthropology
applications of anthropological skills, knowledge, conceps, and methods to the solution of real world problems.
you should study cultures and communtities in three different perspectives
holistic, comparitive, relativistic
Holistic perspective
this means that no single aspect of a community can be understood unless its relations to other aspects of the community's total way of life are explored.
Comparative Perspective
the ways of life of people in different times and places are far too diverse for any theory to be accepted until it has been tested in a range of human populations
Relativistic Perspectives
this means that no culture is inherently superior or inferior to any other
Ethnocentrism
the belief that the moral standards, manners, attitudes, and so forth of one's own culture are superior to those of other cultures
culture
the culture of a group consists of shared, socially learned knowledge and patterns of behavior
the five specific components of cultural knowledge
norms, values, symbols, classifications of reality, and world views
norm
a shared ideal about how people ought to act incertain situations or about how particualr people should act toward particular other people.
values
these consist of a people's beliefs about the goals or way of life that is desirable for themsleves and their society
symbol
somethinga that means, stands for, or calls to mind something else. arbitrary - no ingerent qualities in the symbol itslef that lead some human group to attribute one meaning to it, rather than some other meaning. conventional - the fact that the meanings exist only becuase people implicitly agree they exist (red light)
classifications of reality
the human and naturla environments are divided up according to shared and largely unconscious principles
world views
the way a people interpret reality and events, including their images of themselves and how they relate to the natural world.
culture is necessary for human exisence in at least three specific ways....
-culture provides the skills needed to adapt to our surroundings
-culuture is the basis for human social life
-culture affects our views of reality.
materialism
they think that how a people make their living in their environment is the most important influence on the rest of their cultural existence.
idealists
humans differ from other animals in that these needs can be satisfied in such a multitude of ways that cultural differences cannot possible be reduced to "need satisfaction"
adaption
the process by which organisms survive and reproduce in their environment
what is included in an environment
-physical features like topography and precipitation
-populations of other species like plants and animals
-members of the organism's own species
hunting and gathering (foraging)
peopel exploit the wild plants and animals of their territory for food
agriculture (cultivation)
people intentionally palnt, care for, and harvest crops for food and other uses
herding (pastoralism)
people tend, breed, and harvest the products of livestock for food, trade, and other uses
horticulture
people use only the energy of their muscles in clearing land, turning over the soil, planting the crops, weeding, and harvesting.
what are the three major types of economic exchange
-reciprocity
-redistribution
-market eschange
reciprocity
two individuals or groups pass objects back and forth with the aim of felping someone in need by sharing goods with him or her, creating, maintaining, or strengthening social relationships, or obtaining the objects for oneself.
redistribution
the members of an organized group contribute products or mones into a common pool or fund; a central authority usually has the privelegde and responsibility to make decisions about how the products or money later will be reallocated among the group as a whole
market
products or objects are sold for money, which in turn is used to purchase other products or objects, with the ultimate goal of acquiring more money, which can be spent on more products or objects
generalized reciprocity
those who ive do not expect the secipient to make a return at any definite time in the future
balanced reciprocity
products are transferred to someone and the donor expects a return in products of roughly equal value.
negative reciprocity
both parties attempt to gain all they can from the exchange while giving up as little as possible
what are the three major types of economic exchange
-reciprocity
-redistribution
-market eschange
reciprocity
two individuals or groups pass objects back and forth with the aim of felping someone in need by sharing goods with him or her, creating, maintaining, or strengthening social relationships, or obtaining the objects for oneself.
redistribution
the members of an organized group contribute products or mones into a common pool or fund; a central authority usually has the privelegde and responsibility to make decisions about how the products or money later will be reallocated among the group as a whole
market
products or objects are sold for money, which in turn is used to purchase other products or objects, with the ultimate goal of acquiring more money, which can be spent on more products or objects
generalized reciprocity
those who ive do not expect the secipient to make a return at any definite time in the future
balanced reciprocity
products are transferred to someone and the donor expects a return in products of roughly equal value.
negative reciprocity
both parties attempt to gain all they can from the exchange while giving up as little as possible