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101 Cards in this Set

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What is the lens of a microscope into which the viewer looks?
Eyepiece Lens OR Ocular Lens
Light that passes up from the condesner and through the specimen
Transmitted illumination
Illumination of a specimen from above
Vertical illumination
A microscope with one eyepiece
Monocular
A microscope with two eyepieces
Binocular
The area of the specimen that can be seen after it is magnified
Field of view
The distance between the objective lens and the specimen
Working distance
The scale structure covering the exterior of the hair
Cuticle
The main body of the hair shaft
Cortex
The cellular column running through the center of the shaft
Medulla
The four types of medulla
Absent, Continuous, Fragmented, Interrupted
The initial growth phase during which the hair follicle is actively producing hair
Anagen phase
The second stage of hair growth
Catagen phase
The final hair growth phase in which hair naturally falls out of the skin
Telogen phase
An analytical method for identifying a substance by its selective absorption of different wavelengths of light
Spectrophotometry
Any of several analytical techniques whereby organic mixtures are separated into their components by their attraction to a stationary phase while being propelled by a moving phase
Chromatography
A point when the number of molecules leaving a substance is equal to the number returning
Equilibrium
The written record of the separation that occurs during chromatography
Chromatogram
The time required for a component to emerge from the column from the time of its injection into the column
Retention time
The decomposition of organic matter by heat
Pyrolysis
Form of chromatography with a liquid moving phase and a gas stationary phase in which the entire process occurs at room temperature
High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
Glass to which strength has been added by introducing stress through the rapid heating and cooling of the glass surfaces
Tempered glass
Two sheets of ordinary glass bonded together with plastic film
Laminated glass
A bright halo that is observed near the border of a particle immersed in liquid of a different refractive index
Becke line
A crack that extends outwards like the spoke of a wheel from the point at which the glass was struck
Radial fracture
A crack in a glass that forms a rough circle around the point of impact
Concentric fracture
A naturally occurring crystaline solid
Mineral
A glass tube filled from the bottom to top with liquids of successively lighter densities which is used to determine the density distribution of soil
Density gradient tube
A condition of stage in the physical being of matter
Physical state
A physical change from a solid direction into the gaseous state
Sublimation
A property that is not dependant on the size of an object
Intensive property
Light emitted from a source and separated into its component colors or frequencies
Emission spectrum
A type of emission spectrum showing a continuous band of colors all bleeding into one another
Continous spectrum
A type of emission spectrum showing a series of lines separated by black areas. Each line represents a definite wavelength or frequency.
Line spectrum
An analytical technique used to identify crystalline materials
X-Ray Diffraction
A series of light and dark bands formed when X-Rays combine with one another; it is unique to a compound
Diffraction pattern
A uniform piece of matter; different ones are seperated by definite visible boundaries
Phase
Uncontaminated surface material close to an area where physical evidence has been deposited
Substrate control
Multiplying together the frequencies of independently occurring genetic markers to obtain an overall frequency occurence for a genetic profile
Power rule
Physical evidence whose origin is known, that can be compared to crime scene evidence
Standard/Reference Sample
A solid in which the constituent atoms or molecules are arranged in random or disordered positions. There is no regular order.
Amorphous solid
The separation of light into component wavelengths
Dispersion
A precise rendering of the crime scene, often drawn to scale
Finished sketch
A draft representation of all essential information and measurements at a crime scene. This sketch is drawn at the crime scene.
Rough sketch
Any object that can establish that a crime has been committed or can provide a link between a crime and its victim or between a crime and its perpetrator
Physical evidence
Properties of evidence that can be attributed to a common source with an extremely high degree of certainty
Individual characteristics
The process of determining a substance's physical or chemical identity
Identification
The process of ascertaining whether two or more objects have a common origin
Comparison
A transluscent piece of tissue surrounding the hair's shaft near the root
Follicular tag
An image formed by the actual convergence of light rays upon a screen
Real image
The lower lens of a microscope that is positioned directly over the specimen
Objective lens
The ratio of the speed of light in a vaccuum to its speed in a given substance
Refractive index
The method used to support a likely sequence of events by the observation and evaluation of physical evidence as well as statements made by those involved with the incident
Reconstruction
Properties of evidence that can only be associated with a group and never with a single source
Class characteristics
He established comparative microscopes as key tools for forensic firearms investigation
Calvin Goddard
The father of forensic toxicology
Mathieu Orfila
A fingerprint made by the deposit of oils and/or perspiration; invisible to the naked eye
Latent fingerprint
An individual whom the court determines possesses knowledge relevant to the trial that is not expected of the average lay person
Expert witness
Wrote the first treatise describing the application of scientific principles in criminal investigation
Hans Gross
The medical dissection and examination of a body in order to determine the cause of death
Autopsy
The medical condition that occurs after death and results in the settling of blood in areas of the body closest to the ground
Livor mortis
Swab of inner portion of cheek; cheek cells are usually collected to determine the DNA profile of an individual
Buccal swab
Designed the first scientific system of personal identification based on anthropometry, or a systematic procedure of taking measurements as a means of distinguishing individuals
Alphonse Bertillon
Preeminent microscopist; popularized field of microscopy in forensic examination
Walter C. McCrone
Undertook the first definative study of fingerprits and developed a method of classifying them for filing
Francis Galton
Postmortem changes that causes a body to lose heat
Algor mortis
Developed findemental principles of document examination
Albert S. Osborn
discovered ABO bloodtypes; devised a mtehod for determining blood group from died bloodstains
Leon Lattes
The medical condition that occurs after death and results in the shortening of muscle tissue and the stiffening of body parts in the position they are in when death occurs
Rigor mortis
Demonstated how scientific methods can be inforporated into a workable crime lab
Edmond Locard
The exchange of materials between two objects that occurs whenever the objects come in contact with one another
Locard's exchange principle
A technique for the separation of molecules through their on a support medium while under the influence of an electrical potential
Electrophoresis
To admit visible light when exposed to light of a shorter wavelength
Fluoresce
Solid stationary phase and a moving liquid phase; a glass plate is prepared by coating it with a granular material
Thin-layer chromatography
An image that cannot be seen directly. It can only be seen by a viewer looking through a lens.
Virtual image
Technique of bombarding specimens with neutrons and measuring the resulting gamma-ray radioactivity
Neutron activation anlysis
Describes a substance without reference to any other substance
Physical properties
Describes the behavior of a substance when it reacts or combines with another substance
Chemical properties
The bending of a light wave as it passes from one medium to another
Refraction
A solid in which the constituent atoms have a regular arrangement
Crystalline solid
The thickness of a specimen entirely in focus under a microscope
Depth of focus
An instrument that links a microscope to a spectrophotometer
Microspectrophotometer
A difference in the two indices of refraction exhibited by most crystalline materials
Birefringence
List of all persons who came into posession of an item of evidence
Chain of custody
The most important bones for gender determination
Skull & Pelvis
The process in which the teeth fall out and the gums and sockets recede into the mandible
Edentulous
Instrument used to determine stature
Osteometric board
4 different types of crime scene search patterns
Spiral Search, Grid Search, Strip or Line Search, Quadrant or Zone Search
Physical evidence must be ___, ___, and ___.
Recognized, Collected, Preserved
The application of the study of humans to situations of modern legal or public concern
Forensic Anthropology
Includes an assessment of the sex, age, racial affinity, and height of a skeleton
Biological profile
The part of the bone that experiences growth
Epiphysis
A bony mass on the skull, just behind the ears, for the attachment of neck muscles. Larger in males.
Mastoid process
Specialized rulers for taking measurements of the skull
Calipers
The last epiphysis to fuse
Medial clavicle
The application of the study of arthropods, including insects, spiders, centipedes, millipedes, and crustaceans, to criminal or legal cases
Forensic Entomology
The study of what happens to an organism between the time of death and the time it ends up in a laboratory
Taphonomy
An estimate of how much time has passed since a person died
Postmortem Index (PMI)
A pronounced portrusion on the inside of the mandible found often in Negroid skulls while Mongoloid or Caucasoid skulls show little or none
Gonial inversion
The suture that runs down the front of the forehead. In Caucasoid skulls, this suture is sometimes retained into adulthood.
Metopic suture
An elongation of the skull caused by the portrusion of the teeth and mandible commonly found in Negoid skulls
Prognathism