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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 3 things associated with the development of self-concept
CI(c)A II

Categorical Identification
Comparative Assesment
Interpersonal Implications
3 Strategies associated with learning to write
Such lovely OAs

-Short Vowel Phonemes
-Letter name strategy
-Other features like affrication
Learning to read is associated with what 3 things..
Pretty d- cute
prereading
decoding
comprehension
4 types of ambiguity in language that make jokes and riddles possible..
P lsw

Phonology
lexical
syntactic
word boundaries
What are the 3 reasons someone in middle childhood will be able to conserve?
decentration
reversibility
compensation
Ages at which children have a good sense of the different emotions..
ME DA ME UI

Masking emotion - 6 yrs
Displaced Anger- 9 yrs
Mixed Emotion - 10 yrs
Understand Intention - 11-12yrs
G. Stanley Hall (1904)
1st developmental psychologist, research along with students’ research led to creation of developmental ‘norms’ first half of twentieth century
Arnold Gesell
emphasized middle childhood as distinct phase in lifespan
Social construction
refers to the ways in which the understandings of and expectations about children are passed on through society
Microsystem
Interaction between child and those close to her (parents, teachers, etc)
Mesosystem
Interactions between microsystems (parent/teacher conferences)
Exosystem
– External to child, but still has impact (social services, neighborhood)
Macrosystem
Larger cultural influences (ethnic or religious values)
Chronosystem
Changes over time
What affects physical development? Is it nature or nurture?
Generally, we believe
Nature determines the upper and lower levels of possible development for an individual (range of reaction)
The environment (nutrition, exercise, stress, etc) decides where the individual ends up between these two extremes
Research shows that nonshared environmental influences may have such a large impact that siblings tend to..
be more different than similar.
Secular trend
Long-term upward or downward trend in the numbers, as opposed to a smaller cyclical variation with a periodic and short-term duration.
Secular trend toward children being heavier and taller (up 2 cm per decade since 1900)
Why?
Possible ‘tall’ over ‘short’ gene selection
Environment – prenatal care, immunizations, hygiene/sanitation, better nutrition, less illness
Physical Development in middle childhood
Up until this point we saw two variations
Cephalocaudal – Head down
Proximodistal – Core out
Does it continue this way during the pubertal growth spurt?
NO. However, this reverses during pubertal growth spurt
Hands and feet, then arms and legs, then trunk
At what age does activity level peak?
AROUND8!
Which of piaget's stages is associated with middle childhood?
Concrete operational (7-12 years)
Schema
mental structure by which children organize the world
Assimilation
incorporating new info into existing schema
accomidation
creating new schema to organize new info
Equilibration –
constant cycles of assimilation and accomidation
Operations
Internalized mental actions that follow logical rules
Children become capable of conservation of quantity and number, using the following mental operations:
Decentration –
reversibility
– – Compensation –

– –
During the concrete operational stage, children become able to do which 4 things?
CCC S

conservat (be/c of decent, compens, and reversibility)
Classification
Causality
Seriation
Classification
More sophisticated in concr op because they can consider multiple attributes
Class inclusion is a part of this
class inclusion
red truck vs all trucks distinction
Seriation
Ability to mentally arrange elements according to increasing size (length, weight, then volume - pg 103
Piaget said children have a need for cognition (the tendency to engage in and enjoy effortful cognitive activity), researchers have found this need actually varies from person to person.
Under what circumstances does need for cogntion increase?
need for cognition increases with enjoyment, competence, mastery in thinking
Under what circumstances does need for cognition decrease?
high levels of controlling surveliance, time pressure, external rewards
Criticism of Piaget
Piaget discounted significance of training, however...
cross cultural differences disappear when relevant training is provided
AND child chess experts are more skilled than adult ametures
Piaget criticized for emphasis on logical, scientific thinking and his lack of attention to development of ___________________________________________________aspects of intelligence or _____________________________________ that affect performance on cognitive tasks
Piaget criticized for emphasis on logical, scientific thinking and his lack of attention to development of musical, spatial, social, or quantitative aspects of intelligence or motivational factors that affect performance on cognitive tasks
• • Vygotsky believed cognitive development closely linked to social and contextual environments
• • Zone of proximal development


• • Scaffolding
need to look up
Private speech is associated with...
better performance and better memorization
Vygotsky thought biology important in that ones gender, temperment, etc....
influenced social position and treatment
What are Vygotsky's thoughts on the stages?
• • No universal stages
– – Example…Less cognitive egocentrism shown in cultures where care taking of younger siblings is common
Criticisms of Vygotsky...
1. vague
2. does not say what mental representations are formed from social interaction and how the child acts on them
Sociocultural Perspective in the Classroom
• • What must a teacher understand in order to properly scaffold the development of the students?
you need to know what a kid already knows (in order to) see where they (could be?) with assistance
Information processing
Like a computer – Neuroscience tells us that different locations in the brain are responsible for the following 3 things...
1. input/encoding
2. storage (short term working memory and long term storage)
3. output/retrieval
Information processing
Not interested in stages (like Piaget was), interested in mental activities involved in these 5 things...
1. attending to info (neuro diff may be responsible for some gender diff
2. taking in info
3. mentally manipulating info
4. storage of info
5. how we act on info
Information processing Improvements in school age children include:
• • Increased
• • Faster
• • Improved
• • Improved
• • Increase in
• • Greater
• • More
increased STM capacity
faster speed of processing
improved attentional focus
improved mnemonic strategies
increase in knowledge base
greater automaticity
more metacognition
Short-term store capacity
• • 2 year olds – 2 items
• • 5 year olds – 4 items
• • 7 year olds – 5 times
• • 9 year olds – 6 items
• • Adults – 7 items (for example?)
What are the mnemonic stragegies?
rehersal - repeating info to oneself
organization- putting together items that go together
elaboration-link info to existing knowledge (includes self referencing, which involves relating new info to one's own life experiences)
What is self referencing?
Relating new info to one's own life experiences.Is a form of elaboration
Metacognition
Ability to think about thinking (chess), play with thoughts (riddles), and to monitor and deploy mental effort strategically (use memory strategies above)
Develops around 2nd grade
__________________ – for working-class children; stressed “mastery of the basics”; largely drill and practice, combined with group recitation
 ___________________ – for children of the political and economic elite; went beyond “the basics” to more complex subjects, such as history, arts, and sciences; taught by a
tutor or in small groups
mass education – for working-class children; stressed “mastery of the basics”; largely drill and practice, combined with group recitation
 liberal education – for children of the political and economic elite; went beyond “the basics” to more complex subjects, such as history, arts, and sciences; taught by a
tutor or in small groups
What are the four features of modern schooling that were not true of apprentiships of the past?
1.motivation
2.social relations
3.social organization
4. medium of instruction

 __________________________: Students must work for years (at relatively boring tasks) to perfect their skills before they can put their knowledge to use in adult work
 __________________________Teachers are assigned a carefully restricted role in their pupils’ upbringing that separates education from kinship and economic obligations
 __________________________Children traditionally find themselves in a large room in the company of other children of about the same age and only one adult, where they are generally expected to work individually rather than cooperatively
 __________________________Children are required to acquire skills and knowledge through the manipulation of written symbols
Schools and affect Cognitive Performance by…
 Increasing children’s knowledge base
 Teaching specific info processing strategies that are relevant primarily to school itself (e.g., recall of arbitrary info)
 Changing children’s overall life situations and attitudes, which they pass on to their children in the form of new child-rearing practices that promote cognitive development
Describe the Psychometric approach.
based on the belief that we can quantify intelligence
How does Stanford-Binet define intelligence?
intelligence is a stable, unidimensional construct with variablity determined largely by genetics, not experience.
Describe the two general forms of intelligence...
 Spearman’s g factor (i.e., ability to see relationships among objects, events, and ideas; practical sense and initiative)
 Jensen’s belief that neural processing speed is the fundamental faculty that underpins g and results in differences in intelligence
Describe the theories that consider intelligence to be many specific abilities.
 Thurstone’s 7 primary mental abilities (i.e., verbal ability, inductive reasoning, perceptual speed, facility with numbers,
spatial relations, memory, verbal fluency)
 Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence (i.e., analytic, creative, practical)
 Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences
Describe garner's 7 intelligences.
1. linguistic
2.logical-mathematical
3. spatial
4.musical
5. bodily kinesthetic
6.personal
7. social
Linguistic Special sensitivity to language, which allows one to choose precisely the right word or turn of phrase and to grasp new meanings easily
Musical Sensitivity to pitch and tone, which allows one to detect and produce musical structure
Logical-mathematical Ability to engage in abstract reasoning and manipulate symbols
Spatial Ability to perceive relations among objects, to transform mentally what one sees, and to re-create visual images from memory
Bodily-kinesthetic Ability to represent ideas in movement; characteristic of great dancers and mimes
Personal Ability to gain access to one’s own feelings and to understand the motivations of others
Social Ability to understand the motives, feelings, and behaviors of other people
Thorndike and colleagues (1986) expanded scoring of Stanford-Binet to include four broad measures and subscales within these 4 measures:
1.Verbal reasoning
2.Quantitative reasoning
3.Visual reasoning
4.Short-term memory
 Researchers have shown little correlation between scores for different mental abilities when very low scoring clusters (ex. fetal alcohol syndrome) are removed.
 What view of intelligence do these findings support?
This would support the idea that intelligence is not unidimensional, it's multidimensional.
 Worldwide, there has been _______________________________________ test performance since testing began (e.g., average English person in 1900 would score at the level currently considered to indicate mental retardation)
increase
 Best evidence: IQ, an aspect of a person’s phenotype (i.e., one’s observable characteristics), arises from the joint interaction of the...
genotype (i.e., the set of genes one inherits) and the environment
• Differences in intelligence are almost eliminated by adjusting for differences in...
family poverty, neighborhood economics, maternal education, and differences in learning opportunities
Stability of IQ
Although IQ is theorized by some to be a stable construct, longitudinal studies show a great deal of variation. Under what circumstances does this occur?
Increase Found among independent, academically competitive, self-initiating children with encouraging parents who were verbally and emotionally responsive, gave explanations, and provided interesting toys and activities
Decrease Related to parental unemployment, psychological or physical illness among family members, absence of father, presence of overly restrictive or overly permissive parent
 Researchers used to believe link between IQ and years of schooling went in that direction, actually they now believe years of schooling affect IQ, but NOW..
now believe years of schooling affect IQ
The 2 Personal and social factors affecting academic achievement are ....
Value-Expectancy Theory
Teacher Expectations
Value-Expectancy Theory
Effort a child shows depends on ...
 The value:
 Affected by environment and parental values (ex. Asian American versus Caucasian American children)
 The student’s expectation:
 Increases effort
 Reduces performance anxiety
****** Not always related to past performance
Perceived Competence is best fostered by...
TASK focused goals
 Task-focused goals (developing new skills, improving level of competence, or understanding something) offer best chance of success
 Ability-focused goals (outperforming others, wanting to look smart rather than dumb) offer less chance for success