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22 Cards in this Set

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What are the four phases of mitosis?
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
In general terms, what three things happen during prophase?
Chromosomes condense, the centrioles begin moving toward the spindle poles, and the nuclear envelope breaks down.
In general terms, what two things have been completed during metaphase?
The chromosomes are fully condensed and attached to the mitotic spindle.
In general terms, what two things happen during Anaphase?
Sister chromatids separate and move apart toward the spindle poles.
In general terms, what three things happen during telophase?
The nuclear envelope re-forms around the two sets of separated chromosomes

The chromosomes decondense.

The division of the cytoplasm is completed.
What are asters?
Structure composed of microtubules (astral fibers) that radiate outward from a centrosome during mitosis.
What is an axoneme?
Bundle of microtubules and associated proteins present in cilia and flagella and responsible for their movement.
What is a basal body?
Structure at the base of cilia and flagella from which microtubues forming the axoneme radiate.
What is a centromere?
The DNA sequence required for proper segrgation of chromosomes during mitosis; the region of mitotic chromosomes where the kinetochore forms and that appears constricted.
What is a centrosome?
Centrally located organelle of animal cells that is the primary microtubule-organizing center and acts as the spindle pole during mitosis. It usually contains a pair of centrioles.
What is a centriole?
Either of two cylindrical structures within the centrosome of animal cells and containing nine sets of triplet microtubules.
What is cytokinesis?
The division of the cytoplasm follwing mitosis to gnerate two daughter cells, each with a nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles.
What is a dynein? What are three of their functions?
A class of motor proteins that use the energy release by ATP hydrolysis to move toward the (-) end of microtubules.

They can transport vesicles and organelles, are responsible for the movement of cilia and flagella, and play a role in chromosome movement during mitosis.
What are kinesins? What are two of their functions?
A class of motor proteins that use energy release by ATP hydrolysis to move toward the (+) end of a microtubule.

They can transport vesicles and organelles and play a role in chromosome movement during mitosis.
What are kinetochores? Two components to definition.
A multilayer protein structure located at or near the centromere of each mitotic chromosome from which microtubles extend toward the spindle poles of the cell; plays an active role in movement of chromosomes toward the poles during anaphase.
What are microtubule-associated proteins (MAPS)?
Any protein that binds to microtubules in a constant ratio and detmines the unique properties of different types of microtubules.
Where are MAP1 proteins likely to be found and what function will they serve?
Dendrites and axons.

Assembles and stabilizes MTs.
Where are MAP2 proteins likely to be found and what is their function?
Dendrites.

Assembles and cross-links MTs to one another and to intermediate filaments.
Where are tau proteins likely to be found and what is their function?
Dendrites and axons.

Assembles, stabilizes, and cross-links MTs.
What is the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC)?
General term for any structure, e.g. the centrosome, that organizes microtubules in nonmitotic (interphase) cells.
What is the mitotic spindle?
During mitosis, it is a bundle of MTs shaped like a football that captures the chromosomes and then pushes and pulls them to opposite sides of the dividing cell. There are two tufts associated with them (the asters), one at each pole of the spindle.
What is tubulin?
A family of globular cytoskeletal proteins that polymerize to form microtubules.