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57 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The embryonic yolk sac, the liver, and the bone marrow are sites where
stem cells give rise to immature lymphocytes.
The progeny cells of a B cell clone are called....
plasma cells
Helper T cells...
activate B cells and other T cells
Plasma cells secrete...
antibodies
Cell surface markers involved in immune reactions....
1. are the result of genetic expression
2. function in recognition of self molecules
3. receive and transmit chemical messages among other cells of the system
4. aid in cellular development
The major histocompatibility complex is...
glycoproteins, called MHC antigens, found on all body cells except red blood cells.
Class 11 MHC genes code for...
receptors located primarily on macrophages and B cells.
Class 1 MHC genes code for...
self receptors recognized by T lymphocytes.
List 4 characteristics of Lymphocytes.
1. possess MHC antigens for recognizing self
2. have membrane receptors that recognize foriegn antigens
3. gain tolerance to self by destruction of lymphocytes that could react against self
4. develop into clones of B and T cells with extreme variations of specificity.
The monomer subunit of immunoglobulin molecules has...
1. two identical heavy polypeptide chains
2. two identical light polypeptide chains
3. disulfide bonds between polypeptide chains
4. a variable and constant region on each polypepetide chain
The region of each antibody molecule where amino acid composition is highly varied from one clone of B lymphocytes to another is the...
variable region
Lymphocyte maturation involves...
1. hormonal signals that initiate development
2. B cells maturing in bone marrow sites
3. T cells maturing in the thymus
4. release of mature lymphocytes to begin migration to various lymphoid organs.
Properties of effective antigens include...
1. foriegn to the immune system
2. molecular complexity
3. large molecules with a minimum molecular weight of 1,000
4. cells or large, complex molecules.
The molecular fragment on an antigen molecule that a lymphocyte recognizes and responds to is...
antigenic determinant
Small foriegn molecules that are too small by themselves to elicit an immune response are termed...
hapten
Superantigens are...
bacterial toxins that activate T cells at a 100X greater rate than other antigens.
List 4 characteristics of antigen presenting cells.
1. include dendritic cells
2. include macrophages
3. engulf and modify antigen to be more immunogenic
4. hold and present processed antigen on their cell membrane surface.
4.
T cell response to T cell dependent antigens requires;
1. typically a protein antigen
2. binding of T cell to a class 11 MHC receptor on a macrophage
3. binding of T cell to a site on the antigen
4. interleukin-1 activating the T helper cell
List 4 characteristics regarding the Fc region of an immunoglobulin.
1. Is called the crystallizable fragment
2. forms the antigen binding sites
3. contains an effector molecule that can bind to cells such as macrophages and mast cells
3. contains an effector molecule that can fix complement
4. determines the class to which the immunoglobulin belongs
Which process involves antibodies covering surface receptors on a virus or toxin molecule.
neutralization
Which process involves antibodies cross linking cells or particles into large aggregates.
agglutination
Which process involves antibodies coating microorganisms in order to facilitate phagocytosis?
opsonization
The immunoglobin class that has a dimer form found in mucus, saliva, colostrum and other body secretions is...
IgA.
The immunoglobulin class that is the only one capable of crossing the placenta is...
IgG.
The immunoglobulin class that has an Fc region that binds to receptors on basophils and mast cells is;
IgE
Give 4 characteristics of IgM>
1. has 10 antigen binding sites
2. contains a central J chain
3. is the first class synthesized by a plasma cell
4. is an opsonin.
Which immunoglobulin class/es can fix complement?
IgM and IgG
The immunoglobulins found on the surface of Bcells is/are...
IgM and IgD
Monoclonal antibodies
1. originate from a single B cell clone
2. have a single specifity
3. are secreted by hybridomas
4. are used in immunology lab tets and cancer therapy
The most significant cells in graft rejection are...
cytotoxic T cells
These lymphocytes lack specificity for antigen and are cells that attack cancer cells and virus infected cells.
natural killer cells
These cells carry CD8 receptors and function to inhibit B cells and other T cells.
Suppressor T cells
Cytotoxic T cells...
secrete lymphotoxins and perforins that damage target cells.
An example of artificial passive immunity would be...
giving a person immune serum globulins to chickenpox virus after exposure to the disease.
An example of natural passive immunity would be...
a fetus acquiring maternal IgG to the chickenpox virus across the placenta.
An example of artificial active immunity would be...
chickenpox vaccine triggers extended immunity to chickenpox
These cells secrete antibodies.
Plasma cells
The human leukocyte antigen(HLA) system functions in...
recognition of self
B cells bind antigens; this is true or false of specificity?
TRUE.
MHC molecules are found on which cells?
1. leukocytes
2. eosinophils
3. epithelial cells
4. islet of langherhans cells
What is immunotherapy?
1. It uses antitoxins
2. use of immune serum globulin
3. conferring of passive immunity
4. administering of preformed antibodies
High titers of specific antibodies are components of...
specific immune globulin
Killed or inactivated vaccines are prepared by...
treatment with formalin, heat or radiation
Live attenuated vaccines
include the Sabin polio vaccine
include the measles, mumps, rubella vaccine(MMR)
contain viable microbes that can multiply in the person
require smaller doses and fewer boosters compared to inactivated vaccines
Acellular vaccines and subunit vaccines...
contain select antigenic components of a pathogen rather than whole cells or viruses
Antitoxins...
confer passive immunity
Vaccinia virus is often used in the technique to make...
Trojan horse recombinant vaccine.
What is an adjuvant?
It is a special binding substance that enhances immunogenicity and prolongs antigen retention at the injection site.
IgG is the most abundant class of antibodies in serum. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
A hybridoma results from the fusion of a myeloma cell with a normal________ cell.
B cell
Each ______ fragment of an antibody molecule contains the variable regions of a heavy and light chain that folds into a groove for one antigenic determinant.
Fab
During presentation of APC bound antigen, macrophages secrete the cytokine,_____, that activates T helper cells.
interleukin 1
Class 1, 11, and 111 MHC genes are located on the sixth chromosome of humans. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
The structural and functional differences that distinguish immunoglobulin isotypes are due to variations associated with their Fc fragments. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
One plasma cell will secrete antibodies of various classes but the antibodies will all have the same specificity. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
The albumin fraction of serum separated by electrophoresis will contain most of the antibodies. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.
Gamma globulin can be given as immunotherapy to confer artificial passive immunity. TRUE/FALSE
TRUE.