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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Infection occurs when...
pathogens enter and multiply.
All infectious diseases are contagious. TRUE/FALSE
List 3 terms used for resident flora.
1. normal flora
2. indigenous " "
3. normal microflora
Endogenous infectious agents arise from microbes that are...
the patients own normal flora.
The human body typically begins to be colonized by its normal flora...
during, and immediately after birth
List 4 places where resident flora are found.
1. skin
2. mouth
3. nasal passages
4. large intestine
List 4 resident flora of skin.
1. Staphylococcus
2. Corynebacterium
3. Micrococcus
4. Mycobacterium
List 4 resident flora found in the GI tract.
1. Streptococcus
2. Bacterioides
3. Staphylococcus
4. Haemophilus
List a genus of resident flora of the mouth, large intestine, and from puberty to menopause, the vagina.
Which genus is the most common resident flora of mouth surfaces?
The body site with resident flora that produces beneficial body products, including Vit K and several other vitamins is the...
large intestine
List 4 types of virulence factors of bacteria.
1. capsules
2. exoenzymes
3. endotoxin
4. exotoxin
STORCH is an acronym that represents the most common...
infections of the fetus and neonate
Microbial hyoluronidase, coagulase and streptokinase are examples of...
Exotoxins are...
Microbial hyaluronadase, coagulase, and streptokinase are examples of...
Enterotoxins are...
toxins that target the intestines
List the function of the following;
a. fimbriae
b. capsules
c. leukocidins
d. hemolysins
e. coagulase
a. adherence to substrate
b. antiphagocytic factor
c. damage WBC
d. damage RBC
e. causes clotting
The stage of an infectious disease when specific signs and symptoms are seen and the pathogen is at peak activity is the...
period of invasion
What is the incubation period?
It is the time from when the pathogen first enters the body and begins to multiply, until symptoms first appear.
What is the prodromal stage?
It is the initial brief period of early, general symptoms such as fatigue and muscle aches.
The subjective evidence of disease sensed by the patient is termed...
The objective measurable evidence of disease evaluated by an observer is termed...
a sign
Local edema, swollen lymphnodes fever, and soreness with or without abscesses are indications of...
What is epidemiology?
It is the study of the frequency and distribution of a disease in a defined population.
What is the incidence rate?
It is the number of new cases od a disease in a population over a specific period of time compared with the healthy population.
A disease that has a steady frequency over time in a population is...
an endemic
The primary natural habitat of a pathogen where it continues to exist is called the...
An animal such as an anthropod, that transmits a pathogen from one host to another is a...
What is a fomite?
It is an inanimate object that harbors and transmits a pathogen.
The dried residues of fine droplets from mucus or saliva that harbor and transmit pathogen are...
droplet nuclei
What are biological vectors?
Animals that participate in the life cycles of pathogens from host to host.
When would Koch's postulates be utilized?
determination of the cause of a new disease in a micro research lab
Infection refers to...
pathogens that penetrate host defenses
Opportunistic pathogens...
cause disease in compromised individuals.
The greatest number of pathogens enter through the...
respiratory system
keritinase has the greatest effect on the...
Mucinase has the greatest effect on the...
GI system
Endotoxins are indicative of Gram neg. organisms. TRUE/FALSE
Arthritis from Lyme disease is an example of a sequelae. TRUE/FALSE
______ carriers are shedding and transmitting pathogen while they are recovering from an infectious disease.
_______ are toxins that are the lipopolysaccharide of the outer membrane of Gram neg. cell walls.
_______ are various bacterial enzymes that dissolve fibrin clots.
Most of the skins resident flora are found in the uppermost superficial layers of the epidermis. TRUE/FALSE
sentinel animals are monitored for specific diseases in order to determine the potential for human exposure to a disease. TRUE/FALSE
List some common genera normally found on the skin.
1. Staphylococcus
2. Micrococcus
3. Corynebacterium
4. Proprionibacterium
5. Streptococcus
6. Candida/pityrosporum
7. Demodex mite
List some common genera found in the GI tract.
1. Streptococcus
2. Neisseria
3. Veillonella
4. Fusobacterium
5. Lactobacillus
6. Bacterioides
7. Actinomyces
8. Eikenella
9. Treponema
12.Entoamoeba gingivalis
What are some endogenous organisms found in the large intestine and rectum.
1. Bacterioides
2. Fusobacterium
3. Bifidobacterium
4. Clostridium
5. Streptococcal fecal
6. Lactobacillus
7. E. coli
8. Candida
9. Entamoeba coli
10.Trichomonas hominis
Which organisms are found in the genital tract?
1. Lactobacillus
2. Streptococcus
3. Corynebacterium
4. E. coli
5. Candida
Which organisms are found in the urinary tract?
1. Staphylococcus
2. Streptococcus
3. Corynebacterium
4. Lactobacillus
M. tuberculosis enters through the both the respiratory and GI tracts. TRUE/FALSE
What are level 1 microbes>
Microbes not known to cause disease in humans are assigned to level 1, and highly contagious viruses are referred to as level 4.
List 4 viruses that enter through the gut.
1. Poliovirus
2. Hepatitis A
3. Echovirus
4. Rotavirus
What is the infectious dose for Rickettsia?
This is the cause of Q fever, and the ID is 1-2 cells.
ID for tbc giardiasis is 10
ID is 1,000 for gonorrhea and 10,000 for typhoid fever, in contrast to 1,000,000,000 for cholera
List several pathogens that infect the kidny and are discharged into the urine.
1. leptospirosis
2. typhoid fever
3. tbc
4. schistosomiasis